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Drawing. Art and Materials. Johannes Vermeer, The Allegory of Painting, 1665-1666. Henri Matisse, The Red Studio , 1911. Why do artists draw?. To record. To practice technical skills. To sketch preliminary studies. For an immediate form of expression.

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drawing

Drawing

Art and Materials

why do artists draw
Why do artists draw?
  • To record.
  • To practice technical skills.
  • To sketch preliminary studies.
  • For an immediate form of expression.
slide5

Leonardo, Madonna and Child with Saint Anne

and Infant St. John the Baptist, 1505-1507

cartoon – a preliminary drawing

done to scale for a painting

or fresco

how do you learn to draw well

How Do You Learn To Draw Well?

Practice, Practice, Practice

slide10

“Sketch subjects quickly. Rough out

the arrangement of the limbs of your

figures and first attend to the

movements appropriate to the mental

state of the creatures that make up

your picture rather than to the beauty

and perfection of their parts.” - Leonardo

slide11

“Sketch subjects quickly. Rough out

the arrangement of the limbs of your

figures and first attend to the

movements appropriate to the mental

state of the creatures that make up

your picture rather than to the beauty

and perfection of their parts.” - Leonardo

Raphael, Study for the Alba Madonna,

c. 1511, red chalk, pen and ink

the genius of drawing

The Genius of Drawing

Observation and Preparation

drawing media

Drawing Media

Different Media, Different Qualities

slide22

Raphael, St. Paul Rending His

Garment, 1514-1515

Dry Media:

Metalpoint – involves the use of a

metal stylus applied to paper

prepared with powdered bones or

lead white and gumwater. Popular

in Italy late 15th-early 16th century

but rarely used today.

linear in character, hatching or

crosshatching provide darker

values adding white chalk creates

highlights

slide23

St. Luke drawing with

metalpoint on parchment,

c. 1435

Rogier Van Der Weyden, St. Luke Drawing

the Virgin and Child, c. 1435

slide24

Charcoal: smooth, fluid lines and a wide

range of values created by smudging

encourage chiaroscuro and blending;

intensity of color depends upon hardness

of stick; dry pastels and charcoal are

examples.

Kathe Kollwitz, Self-Portrait, Drawing, 1933

Kollwitz exploits the tremendous expressive potential of this medium.

slide25

Georgia O’Keeffe, Banana Flower,

No. 1, 1933, charcoal and black

chalk on paper

slide26

Graphite: tonal qualities

and line qualities are subtle

and based upon pressure

of application and hardness

of the graphite

Jack Nichols, Merchant Ship Leaving at Night, 1943

slide28

Willem de Kooning,

Seated Woman, 1952

Pastel and Pencil

slide29

Pastel on paper

Degas preferred

pastels because of

the immediacy of the

and its unfinished

quality.

Edgar Degas, After the Bath, Woman Drying Herself, 1889-1890

slide30

Oil Pastels: similar to chalk pastels,

except the binder is oil based making

them take longer to dry, but they are

less prone to smudging and flaking

Beverly Buchanan, Shackworks, 2000

slide32

Pen and Ink: creates varied linear qualities, encouraging expressionist

works; modeling is created by hatching and cross-hatching

Jean Dubuffet, Corps de Dame, June-December 1950

slide33

Ink Wash: provides a wider

value range

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo,

The Adoration of the Virgin and Child, 1735

slide35

Alternative Media: Scissors

Henri Matisse, Venus, 1952

After suffering a stroke

that limited his use of

traditional drawing materials, Matisse was inspired to “sketch” by cutting out shapes of paper using scissors.

the art of ryan mcginness

The Art of Ryan McGinness

Icons, Logos, and Art????

slide37

Ryan McGinness

Born in Virginia Beach, VA

Carnegie Mellon University, BFA

Curatorial Assistant, Andy Warhol

Museum, Pittsburgh, PA

Currently lives and works in

Manhattan, NYC

His work is described by some

critics as, “a Warhol for the

21st century…..”

And by others as, “simple, graphic

doodle…..”

slide38

“ARAB CADILLAC GENERATOR,” 2006,

ACRYLIC ON WOOD PANEL, 48 IN. DIA.

slide39

“KISSING,” 2006,

ACRYLIC AND

POLYESTERURETHANE

ON FIBERGLASS,

104 x 48 x 48 IN.

slide40

“EQUO NE CREDITE, TEUCRI,” 2006, INSTALLATIONVIEW,

AUTOMOBILE PAINT ON STEEL 24 IN. DIA. X 2 IN. EA.),

PUBLIC ART FUND, METROTECH, BROOKLYN, NY

express yourself

Express Yourself!!!

Communicate with Drawings

slide43
Imagine that you are in a foreign country and your only means of communicating with the natives is through drawing.

Draw symbols, icons, logos or pictures that

communicate a question or message to the

person who does not speak your language.

Use one or any combination of drawing media

that will best convey your message.

slide45

Gutenberg Bible, 1450-1456,

University of Texas at Austin.

One of five complete copies in the

United States.

  • Gutenberg Bibles were the first books printed with movable type.
  • Originating in the West, printmaking was used almost exclusively to illustrate books such as bibles and scientific texts.
  • Beginning in the 19th century, the art world began to explore printmaking.
slide46
WHY????
  • To respond to the industrialized where mass production was innovative and new.
  • Like photography, printmaking allows artists to creatively investigate mechanical modes of reproducing imagery.
  • Printmaking made art more affordable than unique works like a painting or sculpture.
  • This technology expanded the artists’ audience and market ($$$$$$$$!!!!!!!!).
terms to know
Print – a single impression of a multiple edition of impressions, made on paper from the same matrix.

Edition – the # of impressions made from a single matrix.

Matrix – the master image on the working surface.

Terms to Know
terms to know48
Original Print – an impression made by the artist or under the artist’s supervision.

Proof – trial impressions made before the final edition is run.

Artist’s Proof – designated “AP”; original plate usually destroyed after edition is made.

Terms to Know
five basic processes
Five Basic Processes
  • Relief
  • Intaglio
  • Lithography
  • Silkscreen
  • Monotype
relief

Relief

Any printmaking in which the image to be printed is raised off the background in reverse.

woodcut
Woodcut
  • Woodcut – the earliest form of relief printing.
  • A wood block surface is

cut or gouged away with

a knife.

  • The surface is rolled with a thick ink.
  • Paper is rolled through a

press directly against

this raised, inked surface.

What Is a Print?

slide53
18th and 19th century Japanese woodcut prints are called ukiyo-e, or “pictures of the transient world of everyday life.”

Hokusai, The Great Wave off Kanagawa, 1823-1829

slide56

Japanese woodblock prints revived an interest in this process among 19th century European artists.

Van Gogh owned

hundreds of prints

and often copied

them directly.

Vincent Van Gogh,

Japonaiserie: The Courtesan, 1887

slide57

Wood engraving –

fine, narrow grooves cut

into the block and do not hold

ink.

The grainy end of the wood

block is used for this process.

The result is extremely finite

modeling and contrasting is

possible.

slide59

Linocut –

matrix is made from

one linoleum block.

For color prints, the

block is printed after

each successive stage of

printing.

Pablo Picasso, Luncheon on the Grass, after

Eduoard Manet, 1962

intaglio italian for engraving

Intaglio (Italian for “engraving”)

Areas to be printed are below the surface of the plate.

intaglio engraving
Intaglio (engraving)
  • A burin, a small v-shaped rod, is pushed across a metal plate forcing up metal slivers in front of the line.
  • Burins vary in size and depending on the force use, lines created can range from very fine to very broad.
  • The cut or incised lines are filled with ink.
  • The surface is wiped clean and a dampened paper is pressed into the plate with a heavy roller.
slide62

Engraving

wisdom and language

evil

Albrecht Durer,

Adam and Eve, 1504

melancholy

laziness

blood

anger and cruelty

deceit

etching
Etching
  • A more fluid and free process of engraving.
  • Metal plate is coated with a acid-resistant ground which is drawn upon.
  • The plate is exposed to an acid bath causing “scratched” areas to become etched into the plate.
  • The strength, depth, or appearance of individual lines can be controlled by stopping out a section through the application of varnish or another coat of ground.

What Is a Print?

slide64

Etching

Rembrandt van Rijn, The Angel Appearing to the Shepherds, 1634

lithography

Lithography

Literally, “stone writing.”

lithography66
Lithography
  • The printing surface is flat.
  • This is NOT a relief process.
  • The method depends on the fact that grease and water do not mix.
lithography67
Lithography
  • It is a very direct process, actually a drawing on stone.
  • It has been the favorite printmaking medium for 19th and 20th century artists.
  • It offers an artist the type of spontaneity and immediacy found in drawing.

What Is a Print?

slide68

Lithograph

Honore Daumier, Rue Transnonian, April 15, 1834, 1834

slide69

Lithograph

Elaine de Kooning, Lascaux #4, 1984

silkscreen printing

Silkscreen Printing

A printmaking process in which the image is transferred to paper by forcing ink through a mesh.

silkscreen
Silkscreen
  • It is the newest form of printmaking.
  • Allows the freedom of drawing similar to the lithographic process.
  • No expensive, heavy machinery is needed.
  • It was originally used in commercial printing, particularly in the advertising industry.
  • Became a very popular artist process in the 1960’s.

What Is a Print?

slide72

Silkscreen

Andy Warhol, Marilyn,

slide73

Silkscreen

Andy Warhol, 30 Are Better Than One, 1963

monotypes

Monotypes

A combination of plate and press printing, it creates a unique image.

slide75
The artists forms an image on a plate with ink or paint and requires

considerable planning.

The paint is applied in layers so the foreground elements must be applied first.

The image is transferred to paper under pressure, usually with an etching press.

pop art

Pop Art

The Art of The Thing

what is pop art
What Is Pop Art?
  • An American-born art movement.
  • First exhibition – New Realists – Nov.-Dec. 1962.
  • Subject matter is derived mostly from the commercial domain.
  • It was a complete departure from the preceding art movement, Abstract Expressionism.
from this
From this…….

Jackson Pollock, Number 8, 1949

to this
To this……..

Robert Indiana,

Love, 1967. Screenprint

“Pop is everything art hasn’t been for the last two decades.

It is basically a U-turn back to representational visual

communication. – Robert Indiana, 1963

i don t know the use of commercial art as subject matter lichtenstein 1963
“I don’t know – the use of commercial art as subject matter.” – Lichtenstein, 1963

Roy Lichtenstein, Look Mickey, 1961, oil on canvas

“….its contribution is the isolation and glorification

of “Thing.” – Lichtenstein, CAA annual meeting, 1964

yes it s liking things warhol 1963
“Yes. It’s liking things.” – Warhol 1963

This “Thing”

sold for $71.7

million in May, 2007

Andy Warhol, Green Car Crash, 1963. Screenprint.

slide83

“I am not a Pop artist!” – Johns, 1963

Jasper Johns, Beer Cans, 1960. Cast bronze.

slide84

“I dislike labels in general and Pop in particular, especially

because it over-emphasizes the materials used.”

– Wesselmann, 1963

Tom Wesselmann, Bathtub Collage #3, 1963.

Oil on canvas and collage.

slide85

“When I use a combination of fragments of things,

the fragments or objects or real things are caustic to

one another, and the title is also caustic to the

fragments.” – Rosenquist, 1963

James Rosenquist, Nomad, 1963. Oil on canvas.

claes oldenburg

Claes Oldenburg

The Store

107 East 2nd Street, New York

slide87

“I am for an art that is political-erotical-mystical, that does

something other than sit on its ass in a museum.” – From,

Store Days, Documents from the Store (1961) and Ray

Gun Theater (1962). - Oldenburg

Claes Oldenburg, The Store,

Dec. 1, 1961-Jan. 31, 1962.

Multi-media installation.

andy warhol

Andy Warhol

The Things in the Factory

(Hey babe, take a walk on the wild side.)

slide89

“Home” to Lou Reed, Bob Dylan, Truman Capote, Mick Jagger,

The Velvet Underground……………..

Andy Warhol in The Factory, 1967

slide90

In 2003, VH1 named Sticky Fingers the “No. 1 Greatest Album Cover

Of All Time.”

Andy Warhol, Album Cover for Sticky Fingers,

Rolling Stones, 1971

slide91

Lou Reed wrote, “Walk on the Wild Side,” for Holly Woodlawn and

the other Warhol drag queens.

Photo of Warhol and His

Factory-era Protégés, 1967

slide93

Andy Warhol, Triple Elvis,

1963. Screenprint.

slide95

Andy Warhol, Cambells Soup

Can, 1968. Screenprint.

slide98

Andy Warhol,

John Wayne, 1986.

Screenprint.

slide99

Why do you think Warhol believed

that 30 Mona Lisas are better

than one?

What does this suggest for

Warhol’s attitude toward

“original” works of art?

Why did he call his studio,

The Factory?