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Chapter 1 Why a Course in Human Sexuality?

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Chapter 1 Why a Course in Human Sexuality?

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  1. Chapter 1Why a Course in Human Sexuality? For use with Human Sexuality Today (4th Ed.) Bruce King Slides prepared by: Traci Craig

  2. Chapter Overview • Why a Course on Sexuality? • Sexual Knowledge Quiz • Cross Cultural Comparisons • Historical Perspectives • Sex as a Science • Scientific Methodology • Sexuality Education

  3. Courses on Sexuality • Consider where you learned about sex? • Parents, peers, friends? • How accurate do you think your information is/was when you were 13? 15? • Time magazine/CNN survey (Stogdill, 1998) • 74% of teens say friends and TV were major sources of information. • 10% of teens say parents provided more information.

  4. True or False? Quiz Erections in men result, in part, from a bone that protrudes into the penis. Erections in men result, in part, from a bone that protrudes into the penis. Sperm can be produced only in an environment several degrees lower than normal body temperature. Sperm can be produced only in an environment several degrees lower than normal body temperature. The hymen is a reliable indicator of whether or not a woman is a virgin. The hymen is a reliable indicator of whether or not a woman is a virgin.

  5. True or False? Quiz The inner 2/3 of the vagina is highly sensitive to touch. The inner 2/3 of the vagina is highly sensitive to touch. Many men experience nipple erection when they become sexually aroused. Many men experience nipple erection when they become sexually aroused. Most men and women are capable of multiple orgasms. Most men and women are capable of multiple orgasms. Breast size in women is related to the number of Mammary glands. Breast size in women is related to the number of Mammary glands.

  6. True or False? Quiz Before puberty, boys can reach orgasm, but they do not ejaculate. Before puberty, boys can reach orgasm, but they do not ejaculate. During sexual intercourse, orgasm in women results from direct stimulation of the clitoris by the penis. During sexual intercourse, orgasm in women results from direct stimulation of the clitoris by the penis. Menstrual discharge consists of sloughed off uterine tissue, blood, and cervical mucus. Menstrual discharge consists of sloughed off uterine tissue, blood, and cervical mucus. For hygiene reasons, you should avoid sex during Menstruation. For hygiene reasons, you should avoid sex during Menstruation.

  7. True or False? Quiz A girl can get pregnant as soon as she starts having menstrual periods. A girl can get pregnant as soon as she starts having menstrual periods. Ovulation generally occurs just before menstruation. Ovulation generally occurs just before menstruation. After a vasectomy, a man can reach orgasm but cannot ejaculate. After a vasectomy, a man can reach orgasm but cannot ejaculate. AIDS is the diagnosis for people who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) AIDS is the diagnosis for people who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

  8. True or False? Quiz The combination birth control pill works primarily by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg. The combination birth control pill works primarily by preventing implantation of a fertilized egg. Taking the oral contraceptive pill results in fewer serious health problems than do pregnancy and childbirth. Taking the oral contraceptive pill results in fewer serious health problems than do pregnancy and childbirth. Women show their highest levels of sexual desire at the time of ovulation. Women show their highest levels of sexual desire at the time of ovulation. There are about 12 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States each year. There are about 12 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States each year.

  9. True or False? Quiz The major cause of AIDS is homosexuality. The major cause of AIDS is homosexuality. If gonorrhea is not treated, it can sometimes turn into syphilis. If gonorrhea is not treated, it can sometimes turn into syphilis. Most women do not show symptoms in the early stages of gonorrhea or chlamydia. Most women do not show symptoms in the early stages of gonorrhea or chlamydia. Gonorrhea, syphilis, and herpes can be successfully treated with antibiotics. Gonorrhea, syphilis, and herpes can be successfully treated with antibiotics.

  10. True or False? Quiz In vitro fertilization involves a process where part of fetal development occurs in a test tube. In vitro fertilization involves a process where part of fetal development occurs in a test tube. It is usually safe to have sexual intercourse during the 7th and 8th months of pregnancy. It is usually safe to have sexual intercourse during the 7th and 8th months of pregnancy. “Prepared childbirth” (e.g., Lamaze) refers to delivering a baby without the use of drugs. “Prepared childbirth” (e.g., Lamaze) refers to delivering a baby without the use of drugs. Most healthy people in their 60s and older continue to engage in sexual behavior. Most healthy people in their 60s and older continue to engage in sexual behavior.

  11. True or False? Quiz Men’s descriptions of orgasm are different from women’s descriptions of orgasm. Men’s descriptions of orgasm are different from women’s descriptions of orgasm. Excessive masturbation can cause serious medical problems. Excessive masturbation can cause serious medical problems. The birth control pill gives women some protection against sexually transmitted disease. The birth control pill gives women some protection against sexually transmitted disease. Women who have masturbated to orgasm during adolescence generally have less difficulty reaching orgasm during intercourse than women who never masturbated. Women who have masturbated to orgasm during adolescence generally have less difficulty reaching orgasm during intercourse than women who never masturbated.

  12. True or False? Quiz The frequency of sexual relations is highest for married couples aged 25 to 35. The frequency of sexual relations is highest for married couples aged 25 to 35. Adult male homosexuals have lower than normal levels of male hormones. Adult male homosexuals have lower than normal levels of male hormones. Douching is an effective method of birth control. Douching is an effective method of birth control. Recent evidence indicates that environmental factors are most important in determining one’s sexual orientation. Recent evidence indicates that environmental factors are most important in determining one’s sexual orientation.

  13. True or False? Quiz Prostitutes are generally hypersexual and have pathological sexual needs. Prostitutes are generally hypersexual and have pathological sexual needs. Most convicted rapists committed their crimes because of an uncontrollable sex drive. Most convicted rapists committed their crimes because of an uncontrollable sex drive. There is a demonstrated link between the availability of pornography and sex crimes. There is a demonstrated link between the availability of pornography and sex crimes. It is against the law in many states for a married couple to engage in sexual behaviors other than penile-vaginal intercourse. It is against the law in many states for a married couple to engage in sexual behaviors other than penile-vaginal intercourse.

  14. True or False? Quiz Most cases of child molestation involve an acquaintance of relative of the child. Most cases of child molestation involve an acquaintance of relative of the child. A pregnant woman can transmit syphilis to the unborn baby. A pregnant woman can transmit syphilis to the unborn baby. Exhibitionists and voyeurs often attempt to rape their victims. Exhibitionists and voyeurs often attempt to rape their victims. Nocturnal emissions (“wet dreams”) are often an indication of a sexual problem. Nocturnal emissions (“wet dreams”) are often an indication of a sexual problem.

  15. True or False? Quiz Alcohol is a central nervous system excitant that enhances sexual performance. Alcohol is a central nervous system excitant that enhances sexual performance. Humans can crossbreed with animals with the use of artificial insemination techniques. Humans can crossbreed with animals with the use of artificial insemination techniques. Women’s sexual desire decreases sharply after menopause. Women’s sexual desire decreases sharply after menopause. Vaginal infections can be prevented by regular use of feminine hygiene products. Vaginal infections can be prevented by regular use of feminine hygiene products.

  16. True or False? Quiz A woman’s ability to have vaginal orgasms is related to penis size. A woman’s ability to have vaginal orgasms is related to penis size. Oral herpes can be transmitted to another person’s genitals by oral-genital contact. Oral herpes can be transmitted to another person’s genitals by oral-genital contact. Unless testosterone is present during embryonic development, nature has programmed everyone to be born a girl. Unless testosterone is present during embryonic development, nature has programmed everyone to be born a girl.

  17. Societal Issues • Lack of education about contraception/abstinence… • Teen Pregnancy • HIV prevalence • STD outbreaks (some with NO CURE) • 3 out of 5 teens in the US say they do NOT have enough information about Birth Control

  18. Cross-Cultural Comparisons • Sexual Attractiveness • What parts of the body are erotic? • When grandparents/parents say there is too much sex on TV? What does that mean? • Too much ankle? Too much kissing? Too much genitalia? • In other cultures the view might be very different.

  19. Sexual Attractiveness • In other cultures the view might be very different. • Consider your armpit? • In Abkhazian, men are highly aroused at seeing a woman’s armpit. • Navel’s in Samoa • Knees in New Guinea and the Celebes Islands • Penis pins in Borneo

  20. Behaviors and Attitudes • Kissing? Isn’t it universal? • Western cultures primarily • Not shared by the Japanese, Hindus of India and others. • Foreplay is also unheard of in some cultures. • Permissive Cultures Mangaians • Teenage boys and girls are instructed in how to please their partner. • Encouraged to have many partners at adulthood become monogamous

  21. The Extremes on the Continuum • Permissive Cultures Mangaians • Teenage boys and girls are instructed in how to please their partner. • Encouraged to have many partners at adulthood become monogamous • Repressed Cultures Inis Baeg • Children never told about menstruation or pregnancy • No nudity, not even when parents care for children, or with one’s spouse • Men believe sex is dangerous to their health so it is done as quickly as possible.

  22. Where is the U.S.? Now? 1920? 1940? 1960? Permissive Repressed Mangaians Inis Baeg How would you measure this?

  23. Differences in more than practice… • Sex for procreation or recreation? • For physical pleasure or spiritual union? • Daily? Weekly? Every five years? • Monogamy or Polygamy? • The text provides examples of each occurring in different cultures.

  24. Diversity within U.S. Culture • Given the diversity of the population of the United States… • Oral-Genital sexual relations • Common for white middle-class (esp. College educated) • But not as common among African Americans. • Not common among low-educated or low-income groups (which may partially explain some of the differences).

  25. Diversity within U.S. Culture • Given the diversity of the population of the United States… • Gender Roles • The double-standard common in Latin American countries. • Permissiveness differs by generation/religion • Asian Americans are least permissive, but are more accepting of abortion (not a moral issue in Eastern religions) • Number of generations since immigration

  26. Historical Perspectives on Sexuality • Judaism • “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it.” –(Genesis 1:28, Revised standard version) • Sex for procreation; celibacy neglects an obligation • Sons valued: Women are property • Rape violation of property rights • Women having extra/pre-marital sexstoned

  27. Historical Perspectives on Sexuality • Judaism • No shame in the physical body. • Sex within marriage was widely accepted and was seen as a gift from God. • Any behavior between husband and wife was accepted as long as the man did not ‘spill his seed’ • Women were guaranteed sexual rights (in spite of their ‘property’ status in other matters)

  28. Christianity • Physical love is separate from Spiritual Love • St. PaulBody is evil and must be controlled by the mind (see dualism) • Celibacy is spiritually superior to marriage. • Sex is not for pleasure, only procreation. • Disgust for the human body: “Between feces and urine we are born.” --St. Augustine

  29. Victorianism • Women grouped with children and regarded as asexual. • Sex was a ‘wifely duty’ • Tissot (1741)—Masturbation would lead to blindness, consumption, and insanity. • Loss of semen was as detrimental as loss of blood. • U.S. b/w 1865 and 1932 awarded 33 patents for sexual restraint devices.

  30. Victorianism • Myths abound • Menstruating women can spoil a ham (British Medical Journal, 1878) • During this same period… • Prostitution • Pornography • and Extramarital Affairs flourished

  31. The Sexual Revolution • Industrial Revolution time and mobility • Women’s movement women not asexual • Penicillin fewer STI concerns • The “Pill” Women can control contraception • Premarital sex was more acceptable (at least among the younger generation)

  32. The End of the Sexual Revolution? • Make Love not War continued into the 1980s • In the 1980s the emergence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, changed the way sex was regarded. • Condoms were used more often and there was a general decline in teen pregnancy and STI cases.

  33. Sex as a Science • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) • Psychosexual Stages • Libido— “sexual energy” is channeled to different body parts at different ages. • Oral Stage, Anal Stage, Phallic Stage, Latency Stage, and Genital Stage • The theory is largely disregarded today, but Freud remains important for acknowledging sexual motivation and sexuality in infants and children.

  34. Sex as a Science • Henry Havelock Ellis (1859-1939) --diagnosed with spermatorrhea (similar to gonorrhea). • Using case histories and cross cultural accounts he published 7 volumes titled “Studies in the Psychology of Sex” • Ellis thought masturbation and homosexuality normal

  35. Sex as Science • Alfred C. Kinsey (1894-1956) • Feared death by masturbation as a youngster. • Began collecting data on sexual behavior in 1938. • Many people were shocked by his findings that many men had had a homosexual experience, women were multi-orgasmic, and many couples engaged in oral-genital sex. • The Institute for Sex Research at Indiana Univ.

  36. Sex as Science • Masters & Johnson • 1954, began to observe and record physiological data on humans having sex in a laboratory setting. • 1966—Human Sexual Response • Allowed the development of techniques to treat sexual problems and sexual therapy

  37. Sex as Science • National Health and Social Life Survey • Began as a Government initiated project to be funded at $15 million to include 20,000 Americans. • Jesse Helms introduced an amendment that removed the possibility of funding. • Through private foundationsIn 1992, 3,432 adults in the U.S.

  38. Scientific Methodology • Surveys and samples • Surveys—measure attitudes, opinions, and behaviors • Population—The people about whom a scientist wants to draw conclusions (e.g., U.S. teens) • Sample—The subset of the population available to whom the survey will be administered

  39. Consider these survey questions… • How often do you masturbate? • How many sexual partners have you had in your lifetime? • Do you have sexual intercourse in different positions? • Do you engage in oral-genital sex? • Have you ever had a homosexual experience?

  40. Problems with Sex Surveys • Exaggerate sexual experiences • Hide aspects of their sexuality • Questionnaires rather than Interviews • Vocabulary problems • What do the terms ‘sex’, ‘had sex’, and ‘sexual relations’ mean?

  41. Vocabulary • If ‘having sex’ means something different to different people… • What are the implications for consenting to ‘have sex’ with someone? • How do you obtain consent from someone for a specific behavior? • What impact might this have on date rape?

  42. Correlations • Correlation is a mathematical measure of the degree of relationship between two variables. • positive, negative, or zero • These relationships are not causal relationships. • For example, the finding that the more sex a married person has the more likely he/she is to masturbate is a positive correlation.

  43. Direct Observations • Eliminates concerns about truthfulness • However, being ‘observed’ may influence behaviors. • With regard to sex research, who might volunteer to be watched? How might they be different than those who prefer not to be watched?

  44. Case Studies • N=1, involves gathering a great deal of information about only one person. • Observer bias can be problematic • Might be one way to identify beneficial treatments but it is not wise to generalize widely from a case study to a population as a whole.

  45. Experimental Research • Experimental method is the only way to ensure that two variables are causally linked (not just correlated). • This involves manipulating the independent variable and measuring the dependent variable. • Limitations: self-report of the DV, participation is still voluntary, can only draw conclusions about the specific variables/constructs involved.

  46. Sexuality Education Today • What is the goal of sex education? • To teach students how to have sex, be healthy? • To teach students moral lessons? • Research seems to indicate that sex education does not lead to promiscuity. • Even when there is general agreement that sex education should be taught, there is often disagreement about what specifically should be included.