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Human Sexuality. Chapter 5: Gender and Gender Roles. Gender: Topic Areas. Impact of gender on human development Gender and sexual development Biological and cultural perspectives Sexual orientation Gender stereotypes and health Gender socialization Gender variance and gender identity

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human sexuality

Human Sexuality

Chapter 5: Gender and

Gender Roles

gender topic areas
Gender: Topic Areas
  • Impact of gender on human development
  • Gender and sexual development
  • Biological and cultural perspectives
  • Sexual orientation
  • Gender stereotypes and health
  • Gender socialization
  • Gender variance and gender identity
  • Biological differences: brain, hormones, anatomy
  • Sex: biologically male or female, based on chromosomes and anatomy
    • Genetics: XX or XY
    • Anatomical: genitals/bodily differences
  • Gender: a social construct; related to notions of masculinity and femininity
  • Gender Identity: the gender one believes oneself to be
  • Gender roles: attitudes, behaviors, rights and responsibilities assigned to us based on our sex
    • Varies by culture
  • Gender-role stereotypes: rigidly held, oversimplified beliefs about sex appropriate behavior.
  • Gender-role attitudes: our personal perspectives/beliefs about sex appropriate behavior
  • Gender-role behaviors: activities/behaviors we engage in as influenced by our sex/gender
  • Gender presentation: how our sex/gender is perceived by others
    • Based on our physical appearance, movements, habits, personality, etc.
    • Baby X study
gender congruence and incongruence
Gender:Congruence and Incongruence
  • Biological, cultural, psychological, and social contexts of gender
    • These contexts can be congruent or incongruent
    • Examples?
gender variations
Gender Variations
  • Some do not conform to socially/culturally constructed gender norms
    • How are such violations represented in dominant discourses?
    • Psychological impact of gender variations?
social construction of gender identity
Social Construction ofGender Identity
  • U.S.: gender identity- internalized by age 2
  • East African societies: boys is a “woman-child” until an initiation rite which makes him a man
  • Mundugumor of New Guinea: women are expected to be violent/aggressive
instrumentality and expressiveness
Instrumentality and Expressiveness
  • Instrumentality: being task-oriented; stereotypically applied to males
  • Expressiveness: being emotionally oriented/focused; stereotypically applied to females
    • “Gender Quotient Test”
gender stereotypes and sexual orientation
Gender Stereotypes and Sexual Orientation
  • Ex. Gay men are not masculine; Lesbian women are not feminine
  • Gay people may have more flexible interpretations of gender roles and expectations (Lippa, 2000)
cognitive social learning theory
Cognitive Social Learning Theory
  • Albert Bandura
  • We “learn” gender as a result of:
    • Reinforcements and consequences
    • Imitation/modeling and observation
      • The social world provides many models and messages about gender
      • Body image: “Women’s Ideal Bodies”
cognitive developmental theory
Cognitive-Developmental Theory
  • Developmental level impacts cognitive processing of gender
  • Understanding gender in developmental perspective
gender schemas
Gender Schemas
  • Mental frameworks for understanding gender
  • Accounts for gender stereotypes
social constructionism
Social Constructionism
  • Cultures invent or “construct” notions of gender
  • Mediated by language and social systems
social constructionism18
Social Constructionism
  • Feminist Studies
  • Post-Modern Approaches
  • Queer Theory
social constructionism and identity
Social Constructionism and Identity
  • (Cohen & Savin-Williams, 1996)
    • Many sexual minority youth are not identifying as gay
      • Rejection of the social construction of sexual orientation
contextual influences on gender
Contextual Influences on Gender
  • Parents “socialize” gender
    • Messages about gender appropriate behavior
    • Directing children to gender appropriate toys
parents socialize gender
Parents “Socialize” Gender
  • Differential language for the same behavior: “active” boy vs. a girl who is a “tomboy”
  • Directing children toward gender appropriate activities (I.e. helping mom in the kitchen)
gender socialization
Gender Socialization
  • Peers: peer pressure, reinforce gender norms
  • Teachers: differential treatment based on gender? Classroom reinforcement
  • Media: gender roles and stereotypes
sexual scripts
Sexual “Scripts”
  • Script: acts/rules/expectations associated with a particular role (male and female “scripts”)
    • Men/women are impacted by certain “scripts” internalized from social interactions
male sexual scripts zilbergeld 1992
Male Sexual Scripts(Zilbergeld, 1992)
  • Men should not have/express certain feelings
  • Sex is for physicality
  • Men are in charge
male sexual scripts
Male Sexual Scripts
  • Men always want and are ready for sex
  • Men should be sexually skilled and successful in sexual interactions
female sexual scripts barbach 2001
Female Sexual Scripts(Barbach, 2001)
  • Sex is good and bad (good in the context of a marriage, stigmatized elsewhere)
  • Masturbation is stigmatized
  • Sex is for men; women are sexually passive (nurturers)
female sexual scripts
Female Sexual Scripts
  • Women should not articulate their needs/desires
  • Women shouldn’t discuss sex
  • Women should look like models
  • Both instrumental and expressive traits
  • Flexibility in gender roles
intersexed people
Intersexed People
  • Ambiguous genitalia
  • 1 in every 2,000 births
  • Due to genetic or hormonal factors
intersexed people30
Intersexed People
  • Sex chromosomes, external genitalia, or internal reproductive system
  • Underdeveloped penis or enlarged clitoris
intersexed people chromosomal abnormalities
Intersexed People:Chromosomal Abnormalities
  • Turner Syndrome:
  • XO
  • 1 in 2,000 births
  • Female external genitalia, no ovaries
turner syndrome
Turner Syndrome
  • Secondary sexual development cannot occur; no menstruation
  • Short
  • Treated with hormonal therapy
  • Infertility
klinefelter syndrome
Klinefelter Syndrome
  • 1 in 1,000 births
  • Male genitalia (small penis)
  • Female characteristics: breasts
klinefelter syndrome34
Klinefelter Syndrome
  • Sparse body hair
  • Learning disabilities
  • Low sex drive, sexual dysfunction
intersexed people hormonal disorders
Intersexed People:Hormonal Disorders
  • Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome:
  • (testicular feminization)
  • Inherited condition; passed on through X chromosomes
androgen insensitivity syndrome
Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome
  • 1 in 13,000 individuals
  • Genetically male
  • Born with undescended testes (inside the abdomen)
  • estrogen is prevalent in the body
androgen insensitivity syndrome37
Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome
  • Vagina and labia, but no female internal reproductive structures
  • Secondary female characteristics develop during puberty, without pubic hair
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  • Genetic female
  • Ovaries
  • Malfunctioning adrenal gland
  • Develops externally as a male
congenital adrenal hyperplasia39
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  • 1 in 13,000 births
  • Penis and empty scrotum
  • External genitalia are ambiguous
  • Often assigned “female”
dht deficiency
DHT Deficiency
  • Unable to convert testosterone to DHT
  • Internal male organs
  • Ambiguous external genitalia (looking more female)
dht deficiency41
DHT Deficiency
  • Begin to look male during puberty (genitalia and physical development)
gender identity disorder
Gender Identity Disorder
  • Cross-gender identification
  • Discomfort with one’s assigned gender
  • Psychological distress
  • Gender identity and sexual anatomy are not compatible
  • Different from homosexuality
transgendered people
Transgendered People
  • Arguably the most stigmatized sexual minority
transgendered people45
Transgendered People
  • An umbrella term; inclusive
  • Flexibility in terms of gender and social identity
  • Move toward transgender rights; legal to fire transgender people in many states
positioning theory
Positioning Theory
  • Rom Harre
  • We “position” ourselves and others in discourse
    • Power relationships
positioning theory47
Positioning Theory
  • Ex. Positioning oneself as an expert, others as uninformed
  • Ex. Positioning oneself as masculine, another male as powerless/emasculated
  • How does culture/society construct masculinity?
    • Dominant discourses on masculinity
    • Contested discourses on masculinity
  • How are constructions of masculinity sustained and reproduced?
hyper masculinity
  • Exaggerated, stereotypical male behavior
    • Aggression
    • Strength
    • Dominance
  • Origins: nationalism; revering one’s own group
  • Current usage: male/female relationships
  • Refers to *power*
anxious masculinity
Anxious Masculinity
  • Enactments of masculinity/manliness that are motivated by a fear of being perceived as feminine
  • “the most important thing about being a man is not being a woman” – Ducat, S.
anxious masculinity53
Anxious Masculinity
  • Rejection of feminine activities/qualities
  • Rejection of non-heterosexual discourses
  • Challenging/needing to prove one’s manliness
mixed cultural messages
Mixed Cultural Messages
  • Masculinity
    • Need to be strong, unemotional, rational, dominant
    • Constructions of the “modern man”- emotionally connected and sensitive
mansfield article
Mansfield article
  • “The Manliness of Men”
  • Holds that feminists fault men for society’s ills
  • “gains and losses” in the women’s movement
mansfield article56
Mansfield article
  • Women have a problem with manliness because they are excluded
    • Argues that women overcompensate/seek to be more like men
mansfield article57
Mansfield article
  • “Feminists insist that men must work harder to appreciate women. Yet they never ask women to be more understanding of men” - Mansfield
mansfield article58
Mansfield article
  • Because women don’t want to be dependent, men may become more selfish (an unintended consequence)
mansfield article59
Mansfield article
  • Equates masculinity with “noble sacrifice for a cause beyond oneself”
ducat book
Ducat book
  • Central Questions:
    • When are men so terrified of being like women?
    • Why must men constantly prove their masculinity?
ducat men s fear of the feminine
Ducat: Men’s “fear of the feminine”
  • Being a “sissy” has a very negative connotation
  • Cross-gender behaviors are taboo in men
  • Men are encouraged to “cut the apron strings”
  • Exude independence; reject nurturance from mom
  • Studies: men were more anxious when engaging in cross gender activities, answering cross gender questions
  • Men are conflicted
    • Men reject all things feminine
    • May secretly want to violate these gender barriers
  • Men are attracted to qualities in women that they detest in themselves