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Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy. Respiration is the process of extracting stored energy from glucose to make ATP. Cellular Respiration Equation. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O and energy

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cellular respiration equation
Cellular Respiration Equation

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O and energy

As a result of respiration, energy is released from the chemical bonds found in complex organic molecules (food).

aerobic respiration
Aerobic Respiration
  • Aerobic Respiration is respiration which takes place in the presence of oxygen
respiration is controlled by enzymes
Respiration is controlled by Enzymes

…rate is controlled by enzymes

cell respiration is divided into 3 stages components
Cell Respiration is divided into 3 stages. (components)

1. Glycolysis

2. Krebs Cycle

3. Oxidative Phosphorylation

glycolysis
Glycolysis
  • Glyco- glucose, -lysis: to split
  • Universal step in all forms of respiration
  • Likely used to supply energy for the ancient cells.
glycolysis1
Glycolysis
  • Function - To split glucose and produce NADH, ATP and Pyruvate (pyruvic acid).
  • Location - Cytoplasm.
  • Occurs in 9 steps…. 6 of the steps use magnesium Mg as cofactors.
nad energy carrier
NAD+ Energy carrier
  • Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide

NAD+ + 2 e- NADH

NAD+ = oxidized form

NADH = reduced form

requirements for glycolysis
Requirements for Glycolysis
  • Glucose
  • 2 ATP…. As activation energy
  • 4 ADP
  • 2 NAD+
  • Enzymes
the products of glycolysis
The Products of Glycolysis
  • 2 Pyruvic Acids (a 3C acid)
  • 4 ATP
  • 2 NADH
net energy result
Net Energy Result
  • 2 ATP per glucose
  • 2 NADH
  • In summary, glycolysis takes one glucose and turns it into 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH and a net of 2 ATP.
krebs cycle also called citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle
Krebs CycleAlso called: Citric Acid Cycleor Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
  • Function: Oxidize pyruvic acid to CO2
  • Produce: 3NADH, 1FADH2 and 1ATP
  • Location: Mitochondria matrix
slide16
Formation of Acetyl CoA:Acetyl CoA is formed when the pyruvate , from glycolysis, combines with Coenzyme A… tis takes place in the matrix.
requirements for krebs cycle
Requirements for Krebs Cycle
  • Pyruvic acid (3C acid)
  • Coenzyme A
  • 3 NAD+
  • 1 ADP
  • 1 FAD
  • Double this list for each glucose.
products of krebs cycle
Products of Krebs Cycle
  • 3 CO2
  • Acetyl CoA
  • 3 NADH
  • 1 ATP
  • 1 FADH2
  • Double this list for each glucose.
krebs cycle
Krebs Cycle
  • Produces most of the cell's energy in the form of NADH and FADH2… not ATP
  • Does NOT require O2
  • The CO2 produced by the Krebs cycle is the CO2 animal exhale when they breathe.
oxidative phosphorylation
Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • Process of extracting to energy from NADH and FADH2 to form ATP.
  • Function: Convert NADH and FADH2 into ATP.
  • Location: Mitochondria cristae.
oxidative phosphorylation1
Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • NADH or FADH2
  • ADP
  • O2
oxidative phosphorylation2
Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • Requires the Electron Transport Chain… the Electron Transport Chain is a collection of proteins, embedded in the inner membrane, used to transport the electrons from NADH and FADH2
cytochrome c
Cytochrome c
  • Cytochrome c: is one of the proteins of the electron transport chain… often used by geneticists to determine relatedness… exists in all living organisms.
  • The Cytochromes alternate between RED and OX forms and pass electrons down to O2
atp yield
ATP Yield
  • Each NADH energizes 3 ATP
  • Each FADH2 energizes2 ATP
chemiosmotic hypothesis
Chemiosmotic Hypothesis
  • ETC energy is used to move H+ (protons) across the cristae membrane.
  • ATP is generated as the H+ diffuse back into the matrix through ATP Synthase
atp synthase
ATP Synthase
  • Uses the flow of H+ to make ATP.
  • Works like an ion pump in reverse, or like a waterwheel under the flow of H+ “water”.
alcoholic fermentation
Alcoholic Fermentation
  • Carried out by yeast, a kind of fungus.
alcoholic fermentation1
Alcoholic Fermentation
  • Uses only Glycolysis.
  • An incomplete oxidation - energy is still left in the products (alcohol).
  • Does NOT require O2
  • Produces ATP when O2 is not available.
lactic acid fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation
  • Uses only Glycolysis.
  • An incomplete oxidation - energy is still left in the products (lactic acid).
  • Does NOT require O2
  • Produces ATP when O2 is not available.
lactic acid fermentation1
Lactic Acid Fermentation
  • Done by human muscle cells under oxygen debt.
  • Lactic Acid is a toxin and causes soreness and stiffness in muscles.
fermentation summary
Fermentation - Summary
  • Way of using up NADH so Glycolysis can still run.
  • Provides ATP to a cell even when O2 is absent.
aerobic vs anaerobic
Aerobic vs Anaerobic
  • Aerobic - Respiration with O2
  • Anaerobic - Respiration without O2
  • Aerobic - All three Respiration steps.
  • Anaerobic - Glycolysis only.
strict vs facultative respiration
Strict vs. Facultative Respiration
  • Strict - can only carry out Respiration one way… aerobic or anaerobic.
  • Facultative - can switch respiration types depending on O2 availability. Ex - yeast
atp yields by respiration type
ATP yields by Respiration type
  • Anaerobic - Glycolysis only Gets 2 ATPs per glucose.
  • Aerobic - Glycolysis, Krebs, and Oxidative Phosphorylation (electron transport chain) Generates many more ATPs per glucose.
aerobic atp yield
Aerobic ATP yield
  • Glycolysis - 2 ATPS, 2 NADHs
  • Krebs - 2 ATPS, 8 NADHs, 2 FADH2
  • Each NADH = 3 ATP
  • Each FADH2 = 2 ATP
atp sum
ATP Sum
  • 10 NADH x 3 = 30 ATPs
  • 2 FADH2 x 2 = 4 ATPs
  • 2 ATPs (Gly) = 2 ATPs
  • 2 ATPs (Krebs) = 2 ATPs
  • Max = 38 ATPs per glucose
however
However...
  • Some energy is used in shuttling the NADH from Glycolysis into the mitochondria.
  • Actual ATP yield ~ 36/glucose
yeast
Yeast
  • Would rather do aerobic Respiration; it has 18x more energy per glucose.
  • But, anaerobic will keep you alive if oxygen is not present.
importance of respiration
Importance of Respiration
  • Alcohol Industry - almost every society has a fermented beverage.
  • Baking Industry - many breads use yeast to provide bubbles to raise the dough.
matching
Matching

Sugar Cane Gin

Barley Saki

Grapes Tequila

Juniper Cones Vodka

Agave Leaves Beer

Rice Wine

Potatoes Rum

question
Question
  • Why is the alcohol content of wine always around 12-14%?
  • Alcohol is toxic and kills the yeast at high concentrations.
swiss cheese
Swiss Cheese
  • Holes are bubbles of CO2 from fermentation.
summary
Summary
  • Know the 3 main reactions of Respiration and the 4 required items for each.
biological examples
Biological Examples
  • Exergonic - respiration
  • Endergonic - photosynthesis
cell types of work
Cell - Types of Work
  • Mechanical - muscle contractions
  • Transport - pumping across membranes
  • Chemical - making polymers
cells use atp as their energy source
Cells use ATP as their energy source
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Made of:

- Adenine (nitrogenous base)

- Ribose (pentose sugar)

- 3 phosphate groups

slide58

Adenine

Phosphates

Ribose

key to atp
Key to ATP
  • Is in the high energy bonds between the three phosphate groups.
  • Negative charges on the phosphate groups repel each other and makes the phosphates unstable.
atp cycles
ATP Cycles
  • Energy released from ATP drives anabolic reactions.
  • Energy from catabolic reactions “recharges” ATP.
atp in cells
ATP in Cells
  • A cell's ATP content is recycled every minute.
  • Humans use close to their body weight in ATP daily.
  • No ATP production equals quick death.