Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy. ATP. What’s the point?. The Point is to Make ATP!. ATP. Whoa ! HOT stuff !. Harvesting stored energy. Energy is stored in organic molecules ____________________________________ ____________ eat these organic molecules food
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What’s the point? The Point is to Make ATP! ATP Whoa!HOT stuff!
Harvesting stored energy • Energy is stored in organic molecules • ____________________________________ • ____________ eat these organic molecules food • digest organic molecules to get… • ____________________________________ • ____________________________________ • controlled release of energy • “burning” fuels in a series of step-by-step enzyme-controlled reactions
glucose + oxygen carbon + water + energy dioxide respiration 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP + heat C6H12O6 + 6O2 COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy by burning fuels in one step ATP glucose O2 O2 fuel(carbohydrates) Harvesting energy stored in glucose • Glucose is the model • ____________________________________ RESPIRATION = making ATP (& less heat)by burning fuels in many small steps enzymes CO2 + H2O + heat CO2 + H2O + ATP (+ heat)
+ + e- How do we harvest energy from fuels? • Digest large molecules into smaller ones • break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another • as electrons move they “carry energy” with them • that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat, or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – e- e- REDOX
e p loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – + + H oxidation reduction H C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP H How do we move electrons in biology? • Moving electrons in living systems • electrons cannot move alone in cells • electrons move as part of H atom • _____________________________________ oxidation reduction
oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP reduction Coupling oxidation & reduction • REDOX reactions in respiration • release energy as break down organic molecules • break C-C bonds • strip off electrons from C-H bonds by removing H atoms • C6H12O6CO2 =__________________________ • electrons attracted to more electronegative atoms • in biology, the most electronegative atom? • O2H2O =_______________________________ • ______________________________________________________________________________________ O2
Oxidation ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ Reduction ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP reduction Oxidation & reduction
like $$in the bank O– O– O– O– P P P P –O –O –O –O O– O– O– O– O O O O NADH O H O H H C C NH2 C C NH2 N+ N+ reduction + H oxidation phosphates adenine ribose sugar Moving electrons in respiration • __________________ move electrons by shuttling H atoms around • NAD+NADH (reduced) • FAD+2FADH2 (reduced) reducing power! NAD+ nicotinamide Vitamin B3 niacin carries electrons as a reduced molecule
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP Overview of cellular respiration • 4 metabolic stages • _______________________ 1. ______________________ • respiration without O2 • in cytosol • _______________________ • respiration using O2 • in mitochondria 2. ______________________ 3. ______________________ 4. ______________________ (+ heat)
What’s the point? The Point is to Make ATP! ATP
H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? • ___________________ • __________________ • conformational changes • bondPitoADP to make ATP • __________________ • allow the H+ to flow down concentration gradient through ATP synthase • ADP + Pi ATP ADP + Pi ATP H+
H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ Got the Energy? Ask Questions! ADP + Pi ATP H+