Pronouns • I, them , you • My, your • Mine , hers • Anything, some, • This, that, who, whatever, • Myself, itself • Each other , • as , who , which
Pronouns • Pronouns are a varied closed- class words with nominal function. English has a developed pronoun system, comprising personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, reflexive pronouns , reciprocal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, interrogative pronouns, relative pronouns, and indefinite pronouns. • Pronoun concord in number • Pronoun concord in gender • Pronoun concord in person
Functions • Between you and me, he got a lot of money. • 私下跟你说….. • You may take a horse to the water, but you can not make him drink. • Death lay his icy hand on kings. • 在死亡面前，帝王也如平民。 • He was IT. • 他很自负。 • In theory, that is like using one of your skin cells to clone a new you. • 在理论上， 那就像使用你的皮上细胞来克隆一个新地你本人。Mea t and fish are more expensive than thy used to be.
Compare : • He scolded everybody there and even she. • =She also scolded everybody there. • He scolded everybody there and even her. • =he also scolded her. • Jack treated the girl as kindly as me. • Jack treated the girl as kindly as I . • ＝ as I treated the girl.
For the life of me the +noun +of +me/it/him etc. • I will not for the life of me do it. • He did it just for the fun of it. • I don’t like the look of him. • The failure will be the death of her. • He will break the neck of you. • The business may be the ruin of her.(ruin her) • I can’t for the soul of me do it. =I can never ) • I have never seen the like of it.
Translation 1.He who has endured the hardest lot can earn himself the best chance to rise above all others. 吃得苦中苦，方为人上人。
2. She conducts herself in society on the principle that, if you make things easy for others, things would be easy for you. • 她的处世原则是：与人方便，自己方便。 • 3. He also stresses the pessimist tends to blame himself or feel like fate’s plaything when he is caught in a dilemma. • 他还强调说，当悲观主义者陷于困境时，他倾向于自责或任凭命运的摆布。
4. We college students should not see ourselves as darlings of the times. We should see it as our responsibility to create a brighter future for China—by studying and working hard. • 我们大学生不应把自己看成时代的宠儿，应把通过刻苦学习和工作为中国创造光明未来视为己任 • 5. College students should prepare themselves for the future social life from today on, since preparedness ensures success, and un-preparedness spells failure. • 必然要走入社会的在校大学生应从现在起为未来的社会生活做准备,因为凡事预则立,不预则废。
6. Their perseverance in the pursuit of truth was well worth our praise even if they didn’t make it to their goal. • 尽管他们没有成功，他们追求真理的执著精神值得我们赞扬。 • 7. SARS will serve as a reminder of what lifestyle we should develop. We will think of it when we spit anywhere, when we help ourselves to wild game, when we are careless of our personal hygiene. • SARS 将提醒我们应养成什么样的生活方式。每当我们随地吐痰的时候，每当我们品尝野味的时候，每当我们不注意个人卫生的时候，我们就会想到SARS.
Cry oneself hoarse • The boy cried himself hoarse. 哭得嗓子都哑了 • They quarreled themselves red in the face. 面红耳赤 • She cried herself to sleep. • She worked herself ill.累病了 • The man ran himself out of breath. 上气不接下气 • They talked themselves asleep. 他们谈得睡者了。
Expletive it or pleonastic it • a.It is raining. Rain , [-N, +V ] What ?? • b. It seems that John is late. • What ?? Seem , [ -N, + V ], [___ CP] [proposition] • c. It appears that we will have to do it ourselves. What ?? Extended Projection Principle (EPP) 填词是必须遵守词汇里次类特征的要求； 且句子必有主语。
Content It • It devours the napless cosmonauts. What …? • John saw it before it disappeared up the chimney. What did John see before it disappeared up the chimney?
It Idioms • That’s it. 那正是我想知道的。 • That must be it. 准是那么回事。 • That is about it. 差不多是这样。 • The man is so badly injured that I’m afraid he has had it. Go it!. We’ll back you up. 加油！ • You’ll catch it（受责备） if your father finds you doing that. • Win or lose, we’ll stick it out. （坚持到底） • We had a nice time of it. • There is nothing for it but to stand.没有别的办法，只能忍耐一下。 • Take it easy. • The ruler lorded it（欺压） over the people. • Let’s call it a day. • As luck would have it,…
Reflexive pronouns • They found themselves in a dilemma. 进退维谷 • He caught himself making the same grammatical mistakes. • He made a shoe of himself before public. 出丑 • Don’t make a nuisance of yourself. 令人讨厌 • Tom keeps himself to himself. 不与人来往
For oneself • This one I shall keep for myself. • He loves labor for itself. • You have opened for yourself the way to success. • There are things that one can’t do for oneself. • He has built a house for oneself. • If you had an eye in your head, you might see what she is for yourself . (without help from others and in order to benefit oneself)
By oneself and of oneself • She likes to take a walk by herself. • He didn’t like to leave her daughter by herself.(alone, unaccompanied). • It is a virtue by itself. • Of oneself (spontaneously, in its own nature, separately considered, without instigation or aid of other) • He woke up of himself. • The door opened of itself. • The candle went out of itself. • Cholera, small-pox,etc. grew of themselves.
Beside oneself ,in oneself • His wife was almost beside herself with joy. (wildly excited) • He is beside himself with anger. • In oneself (independently of extraneous influence;apart from what is not essential to it) • Lack of confidence in himself made him hesitate. • A fine courtesy is a fortune in itself. • These substances are not poisonous in themselves. • The charity in itself is admirable. • Diamond in itself is hard. • Our existence is a miracle in itself.
To oneself, inwardly • I had kept the belief to myself. • I chuckled to myself. • I must write as though I were a person of importance; and indeed, I am-to myself, to myself I am the most important in the world. –Maugham • Read the letter to yourself.(by oneself, alone)
Every one vs everyone • Compare • Everyone has his faults and shortcomings. • Which novel do you want to borrow? _ I want to borrow every one. (=each thing ) • Try your best, every one! (each ) • Her father is among other things, a very selfish person. • None (no) other than • The man he met was none other than his father. • He reread the paper with no other purpose than to pass the time.
Noun Pronoun Anaphor • 1. He left on time. • 2. [The old man ]i said hei left on time • 3. Maryi said shei left on time. • 4.﹡Himself left on time. ( anaphor ) • 5.﹡Each other left on time. • 6. The old man saw himself in the mirror. ( reflexive pronoun) ( matching condition) • 7. Mary and the old man saw each other in the mirror. ( reciprocal pronoun) • 8. ﹡ [ Mary’si father]j nags herselfi. • 9.﹡ [John’s mother]j saw himselfi .
Binding Theory • Johni believes [IP himselfto be in love with Mary]. • ﹡ Johni believes [CP] [IPhimself is be in love with Mary]. • ﹡Johni believed [ IP Mary to be in love with himselfi]. • ﹡[IP Johnisaw [NP] a picture of himi]. • [IP Johni saw [NP] Mary’s j picture of himi]] • ﹡ Johni believes [IP himi to be the king of Samona]. • Johni believes [IP hei is the king of Samona].
Reflexive Pronouns • Hisimother loves Johni. • ﹡他i的母亲很爱约翰i。 • ﹡ John’si pride finally hurt himselfi. • 约翰i的骄傲终于害了自己i。 • 张三的父亲i常吹捧自己i。 • ﹡ 张三i的父亲常吹捧自己i • 张三i认为李四j喜欢自己I。 • 张三i认为李四j喜欢自己j。
Schemata’s effect • The city council refused the women a parade permit because they feared violence. • 市政府拒绝向他们发放游行许可证,因为他们害怕暴力. • The city council refused the women a parade permit because they advocate violence. • 市政府拒绝向他们发放游行许可证,因为他们拥护暴力.
Pronouns in English that mean “everyone in general” • One never know who real friends are until times like these. • Yougotta study hard to get good grades. • We should study hard if we want to get good grades. • Everyone should learn a foreign language.
Everyone /Everybody has his/her/their own way of doing things. • Two ways of avoiding the usage of he or she or his /her when these forms are used in a general sense are • A. to use plurals • A student should plan his schedule wisely. • Students should plan their schedules wisely. • B. to use one • A person should not reveal his deepest thoughts to total strangers. • One should not reveal one’s deepest thoughts to total stranger.
Of course , both these ways have some drawbacks . Sometimes using the plural will not work,such as when you simply want to discuss an individual’s doing something. And the use of one can easily be overdone, resulting in stilted or overly formal language.
Deictic Centre • Ice floats on water. • It’s raining. • I’m angry. • I’ll be here again in an hour. • (person deixis, place deixis, time deixis-point of reference)) • This one is genuine, but this one is fake. (gestural usage) • He is not the Duke,he is. He’s the butler. • This city is beautiful. • You can come with me if you like.
Demonstrative Pronouns • I like this car better than that one over there.(spatial) • I like this movie better than that concert last night.(temporal) • I like this candidate, which is why I didn’t vote for that one. (psychological) • This dress is less attractive than that one.(ordinal)
Error correction • The house of my friends is on the corner.(?) • My friend’s house is the correct form of an animate possessor, especially here where the possessor is not a long or complex NP. For example,What can I do for the husband of Dr. Smith’s daughter? • Leo and Hugo hit themselves, and Hugo got injured.(?) • The reflexive pronoun themselves has been used, implying that Leo hit himself and Hugo hit himself, when presumably the reciprocal pronoun each other is what was intended(I.e., Leo hit Hugo and vice versa, unless self-flagellation was the intended meaning.
This prize was given to Edger and I . • The book is by she and Professor Hansan. • Me and Mark are going to the store. • Native speakers sometimes do violate the prescriptive rules of pronoun usage and the subject pronouns where object pronouns are called for; and sometimes they use object pronouns where the prescriptive rule says subject pronouns are necessary.