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V. Cirigliano Caltech C. Lee INT S. Tulin Caltech S. Profumo Caltech. M.J. Ramsey-Musolf. Electric Dipole Moments and the Origin of Baryonic Matter. PRD 71: 075010 (2005) & hep-ph/0603058. Cosmic Energy Budget. Dark Matter. Dark Energy. Baryons.

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electric dipole moments and the origin of baryonic matter

V. Cirigliano Caltech

C. Lee INT

S. Tulin Caltech

S. Profumo Caltech

M.J. Ramsey-Musolf

Electric Dipole Moments and the Origin of Baryonic Matter

PRD 71: 075010 (2005) & hep-ph/0603058

what is the origin of baryonic matter

Cosmic Energy Budget

Dark Matter

Dark Energy

Baryons

Explaining non-zero rB requires CP-violation beyond that of the Standard Model (assuming inflation set rB=0)

What is the origin of baryonic matter ?

what is the origin of baryonic matter1

Cosmic Energy Budget

Dark Matter

Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) of the neutron, electron, and neutral atoms probe new CP-violation

Dark Energy

T-odd , CP-odd by CPT theorem

Baryons

What are the quantitative implications of new EDM experiments for explaining the origin of the baryonic component of the Universe ?

What is the origin of baryonic matter ?

baryogenesis and edms theoretical tasks

Equally difficult but less studied

This talk

Baryogenesis and EDMs: Theoretical Tasks
  • Attaining reliable computations that relate particle physics models of new CP-violation to EDMs of complex systems (neutron, atoms, nuclei)
  • Attaining reliable computations of the baryon asymmetry from fundamental particle physics theories with new CP-violation

Nonperturbative QCD, atomic & nuclear structure

  • Non-equilibrium quantum transport
  • Non-zero T and m
  • Spacetime dynamics of cosmic phase transitions
outline

Overview

Theory: Non-equilibrium QFT & quantum transport

Phenomenology

Outlook & Open Issues

How to compute rB systematically from Lnew

Connecting rB, EDMs, and dark matter

Outline
baryogenesis ingredients

Present universe

Early universe

Weak scale

Planck scale

Baryogenesis: Ingredients

Sakharov Criteria

  • B violation
  • C & CP violation
  • Nonequilibrium dynamics

Sakharov, 1967

baryogenesis ingredients1

,

Sakharov Criteria

  • B violation
  • C & CP violation
  • Nonequilibrium dynamics

Sakharov, 1967

Baryogenesis: Ingredients
baryogenesis ingredients2

Present universe

Early universe

?

?

Weak scale baryogenesis can be tested experimentally

Weak scale

Planck scale

Baryogenesis: Ingredients

Sakharov Criteria

  • B violation
  • C & CP violation
  • Nonequilibrium dynamics

Sakharov, 1967

leptogenesis

Present universe

Early universe

Key Ingredients

  • Heavy nR
  • mn spectrum
  • CP violation
  • L violation

Leptogenesis

b-decay, 0n bb-decay, q13

Weak scale

Planck scale

Leptogenesis
ew baryogenesis standard model

Weak Scale Baryogenesis

  • B violation
  • C & CP violation
  • Nonequilibrium dynamics

Sakharov, 1967

Kuzmin, Rubakov, Shaposhnikov McLerran,…

EW Baryogenesis: Standard Model

Anomalous Processes

Different vacua: D(B+L)= DNCS

Sphaleron Transitions

ew baryogenesis standard model1

Shaposhnikov

Weak Scale Baryogenesis

  • B violation
  • C & CP violation
  • Nonequilibrium dynamics

1st order

2nd order

Sakharov, 1967

  • CP-violation too weak
  • EW PT too weak

Increasing mh

EW Baryogenesis: Standard Model
baryogenesis new electroweak physics

Weak Scale Baryogenesis

  • B violation
  • C & CP violation
  • Nonequilibrium dynamics

Topological transitions

Broken phase

1st order phase transition

Sakharov, 1967

  • Is it viable?
  • Can experiment constrain it?
  • How reliably can we compute it?
Baryogenesis: New Electroweak Physics

Unbroken phase

CP Violation

edm probes of new cp violation

CKM

fdSM dexp dfuture

Also 225Ra, 129Xe, d

If new EWK CP violation is responsible for abundance of matter, will these experiments see an EDM?

EDM Probes of New CP Violation
slide16

Better theory

Present n-EDM limit

Proposed n-EDM limit

Matter-Antimatter

Asymmetry in

the Universe

?

M. Pendlebury B. Filippone

“n-EDM has killed more theories than any other single experiment”

baryogenesis and edms better theory

Systematic treatment of transport dynamics w/ controlled approximations

Baryogenesis and EDMs: Better Theory ?

Non-equilibrium quantum transport

RHIC

Violent departure from equilibrium

Electroweak Baryogenesis

“Gentle” departure from equilibrium

systematic baryogenesis

CPV phases

Parameters in Lnew

Bubble & PT dynamics

Departure from equilibrium

  • Earliest work: QM scattering & stat mech
  • New developments: non-equilibrium QFT
Systematic Baryogenesis

Goal: Derive dependence of YB on parameters Lnew systematically (controlled approximations)

systematic baryogenesis1

Unbroken phase

Topological transitions

Broken phase

nL produced in wall & diffuses in front

1st order phase transition

FWS(x) !0 deep inside bubble

Systematic Baryogenesis

Cohen, Kaplan, Nelson Joyce, Prokopec, Turok

“snow”

systematic baryogenesis2

Unbroken phase

Topological transitions

+

Compute from first principles given Lnew

Broken phase

1st order phase transition

=

+

+

Systematic Baryogenesis

Riotto Carena et al Lee, Cirigliano, Tulin, R-M

Quantum Transport Equation

Schwinger-Dyson Equations

systematic baryogenesis3

+

=

+

+

Systematic Baryogenesis

Departure from equilibrium

  • Non-adiabatic evolution of states & degeneracies
  • Non-thermal distributions

Generalized Green’s Functions: Closed Time Path

Exploit scale hierarchy: expand in scale ratios e

non equilibrium quantum field theory
Non-equilibrium Quantum Field Theory

Closed Time Path (CTP) Formulation

Conventional, T=0 equilibrium field theory:

non equilibrium quantum field theory1
Non-equilibrium Quantum Field Theory

Two assumptions:

  • Non-degenerate spectrum
  • Adiabatic switch-on of LI

LI

non equilibrium t 0 evolution

=

+

+

-

+

+

Non-equilibrium T>0 Evolution

Generalized Green F’ns

  • Spectral degeneracies
  • Non-adiabaticity

LI

scale hierarchy

T > 0: Degeneracies

M(T)

GP(T)

vW > 0: Non-adiabaticity

Decoherence time:

td ~ 1/(vW k)

vW

e.g., particle in an expanding box

Scale Hierarchy

Time Scales

Plasma time:

tP ~ 1/GP

scale hierarchy1

ep = tint / tP ~ GP / w

<< 1

Time scales:

<< 1

ed = tint / td ~ vwk/ w

tint ~ 1/w tP ~ 1/GPtd ~ 1/(vwk)

GP ~ 3Cf aT/ 8

w2 ~ m2 +2pa Cf T2+ k2

Energy scales:

k / w < 1

vw ~ 0.1

em = m / T << 1

Scale Hierarchy
quantum transport equations

=

+

Approximations

CP violating sources

Expand in ed,p,m

+

  • neglect O(e3) terms

Chiral Relaxation

Producing nL = 0

From S-D Equations:

Strong sphalerons

  • SCPV
  • GM , GH , GY , GSS
  • SCPV
  • GM , GH , GY

+

Riotto, Carena et al, Lee et al

Lee et al

Numerical work:

  • GSS

Currents

Links CP violation in Higgs and baryon sectors

Quantum Transport Equations
susy a candidate symmetry of the early universe

Fermions

Bosons

sfermions

gauginos

Higgsinos

Charginos, neutralinos

SUSY: a candidate symmetry of the early Universe

Supersymmetry

susy and r parity
SUSY and R Parity

If nature conserves

vertices have even number of superpartners

  • Lightest SUSY particle

is stable

viable dark matter candidate

  • Proton is stable
  • Superpartners appear only in loops

Consequences

systematic baryogenesis mssm

1st order

2nd order

Increasing mh

1st order PT in MSSM: mh < 120 GeV

mh>114.4 GeV

Constraint on mhrelaxed for larger gauge/Higgs sector (NMSSM, etc.)

or ~ 90 GeV (SUSY)

Systematic Baryogenesis: MSSM

LEP EWWG

See, e.g., Kang et al for U(1)’

systematic baryogenesis mssm1
Systematic Baryogenesis: MSSM

SUSY mass parameter

Soft SUSY-breaking mass parameters

systematic baryogenesis mssm2

M1

0

-mZ cosb sinqW

mZ cosb cosqW

T ~TEW : scattering of H,W from background field

MN =

~

~

mZ sinb sinqW

M2

-mZ sinb sinqW

0

0

-m

-mZ cosb sinqW

mZ cosb cosqW

-m

T << TEW : mixing of H,W to c+, c0

mZ sinb sinqW

-mZ sinb sinqW

0

~

~

~

~

M2

MC =

m

Systematic Baryogenesis: MSSM

Chargino Mass Matrix

Neutralino Mass Matrix

systematic baryogenesis mssm3

T ~TEW : scattering of fL, fR from background field

~

~

T << TEW : mixing of fL, fR to f1, f2

~

~

Qf < 0

Qf > 0

~

~

Systematic Baryogenesis: MSSM

Sfermion mass matrix

supersymmetric sources msugra2

Approximations

Approximations

  • neglect O(e3) terms
  • supergauge equilibrium:
  • neglect O(e3) terms
  • supergauge equilibrium:
  • Higgs vev expansion

Neutral gauginos = Majorana fermions

Supersymmetric Sources (mSUGRA)
supersymmetric sources msugra3

Approximations

Previous work:

  • neglect O(e3) terms
  • supergauge equilibrium:

GY >> G(-,+)

Effect decouples:

  • Higgs vev expansion
  • Yukawa decoupling

Links rB to Higgsinos

Supersymmetric Sources (mSUGRA)

O (emep)

supersymmetric sources msugra4

Approximations

  • neglect O(e3) terms
  • supergauge equilibrium:
  • Higgs vev expansion
  • Yukawa decoupling
  • Fast supergauge int
Supersymmetric Sources (mSUGRA)

(Super) gauge interactions

susy inputs

Strong 1st order PT: light stop

r parameter: heavy LH stop

mh < 120 GeV:

Bubble wall parameters:

Illustrative choice:

SUSY Inputs
baryon number
Baryon Number

Higgsinos

Squarks

baryon number g y

tL

tR

tL

our GY

previous GY

g

H

Cirigliano, Lee, R-M, Tulin

Joyce, Prokopec, Turok

m

Baryon Number & GY
edm constraints susy cpv

Near degeneracies resonances

BBN

WMAP

de

de

199Hg

199Hg

BAU

BAU

Lee et al

EDM constraints & SUSY CPV

Different choices for SUSY parameters

edm constraints susy cpv1

Dark Matter Constraints

Future: EDMs & LHC

de

dn

BBN

WMAP

BAU-DM

Lee et al

Large Hadron Collider

Large Hadron Collider

EDM constraints & SUSY CPV
edm constraints susy cpv2

BBN

Heavier sleptons: weaker one-loop EDM constraints & less resonant baryogenesis

EDM constraints & SUSY CPV

One-loop de & slepton mass

edm constraints susy cpv3
EDM constraints & SUSY CPV

One-loop vs. Two-loop EDMs

edm constraints susy cpv4

Neutralino-driven baryogenesis

Baryogenesis

LEP II Exclusion

Two loop de

SUGRA: M2 ~ 2M1

AMSB: M1 ~ 3M2

EDM constraints & SUSY CPV
relic abundance of susy dm

M1

0

-mZ cosb sinqW

mZ cosb cosqW

MN =

mZ sinb sinqW

M2

-mZ sinb sinqW

0

0

-m

-mZ cosb sinqW

mZ cosb cosqW

-m

T << TEW : mixing of H,W to c+, c0

mZ sinb sinqW

-mZ sinb sinqW

0

~

~

~

~

  • = N11B 0 + N12W 0 + N13Hd0 + N14Hu0

BINO

WINO

HIGGSINO

+ res

+ coannihilation

Relic Abundance of SUSY DM

Neutralino Mass Matrix

dark matter relic abundance

Neutralino-driven baryogenesis

suppressed

too fast

LEP II Exclusion

Non-thermal c0

SUGRA: M2 ~ 2M1

AMSB: M1 ~ 3M2

Dark Matter: Relic Abundance
summary outlook
Summary & Outlook
  • EWB remains a viable option for explaining the cosmic baryon asymmetry that can be tested and constrained using EDMs, precision electroweak, and collider input
  • New developments using non-equilibrium QFT are putting YB computations on a more systematic footing that will allow for detailed confrontations with lab experiments
  • Considerable (hard) work remains to be completed
  • Exciting field involving an interplay between cosmology and particle/nuclear physics in both theory and experiment

Complete set of transport coefficients, refined studies of bubble dynamics, applications to various scenarios for new CP-violation, phenomenology (EDM, Dark Matter, B physics, precision electroweak, collider)