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Electric Dipole Moments and the Origin of Baryonic Matter

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### Electric Dipole Moments and the Origin of Baryonic Matter

### What is the origin of baryonic matter ?

### What is the origin of baryonic matter ?

C. Lee INT

S. Tulin Caltech

S. Profumo Caltech

M.J. Ramsey-Musolf

PRD 71: 075010 (2005) & hep-ph/0603058

Dark Matter

Dark Energy

Baryons

Explaining non-zero rB requires CP-violation beyond that of the Standard Model (assuming inflation set rB=0)

Dark Matter

Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) of the neutron, electron, and neutral atoms probe new CP-violation

Dark Energy

T-odd , CP-odd by CPT theorem

Baryons

What are the quantitative implications of new EDM experiments for explaining the origin of the baryonic component of the Universe ?

Equally difficult but less studied

This talk

Baryogenesis and EDMs: Theoretical Tasks- Attaining reliable computations that relate particle physics models of new CP-violation to EDMs of complex systems (neutron, atoms, nuclei)
- Attaining reliable computations of the baryon asymmetry from fundamental particle physics theories with new CP-violation

Nonperturbative QCD, atomic & nuclear structure

- Non-equilibrium quantum transport
- Non-zero T and m
- Spacetime dynamics of cosmic phase transitions

Early universe

Weak scale

Planck scale

Baryogenesis: IngredientsSakharov Criteria

- B violation
- C & CP violation
- Nonequilibrium dynamics

Sakharov, 1967

Sakharov Criteria

- B violation
- C & CP violation
- Nonequilibrium dynamics

Sakharov, 1967

Baryogenesis: IngredientsEarly universe

?

?

Weak scale baryogenesis can be tested experimentally

Weak scale

Planck scale

Baryogenesis: IngredientsSakharov Criteria

- B violation
- C & CP violation
- Nonequilibrium dynamics

Sakharov, 1967

Early universe

Key Ingredients

- Heavy nR
- mn spectrum
- CP violation
- L violation

Leptogenesis

b-decay, 0n bb-decay, q13

Weak scale

Planck scale

Leptogenesis- B violation
- C & CP violation
- Nonequilibrium dynamics

Sakharov, 1967

Kuzmin, Rubakov, Shaposhnikov McLerran,…

EW Baryogenesis: Standard ModelAnomalous Processes

Different vacua: D(B+L)= DNCS

Sphaleron Transitions

Weak Scale Baryogenesis

- B violation
- C & CP violation
- Nonequilibrium dynamics

1st order

2nd order

Sakharov, 1967

- CP-violation too weak
- EW PT too weak

Increasing mh

EW Baryogenesis: Standard Model- B violation
- C & CP violation
- Nonequilibrium dynamics

Topological transitions

Broken phase

1st order phase transition

Sakharov, 1967

- Is it viable?
- Can experiment constrain it?
- How reliably can we compute it?

Unbroken phase

CP Violation

fdSM dexp dfuture

Also 225Ra, 129Xe, d

If new EWK CP violation is responsible for abundance of matter, will these experiments see an EDM?

EDM Probes of New CP ViolationPresent n-EDM limit

Proposed n-EDM limit

Matter-Antimatter

Asymmetry in

the Universe

?

M. Pendlebury B. Filippone

“n-EDM has killed more theories than any other single experiment”

Systematic treatment of transport dynamics w/ controlled approximations

Baryogenesis and EDMs: Better Theory ?Non-equilibrium quantum transport

RHIC

Violent departure from equilibrium

Electroweak Baryogenesis

“Gentle” departure from equilibrium

Parameters in Lnew

Bubble & PT dynamics

Departure from equilibrium

- Earliest work: QM scattering & stat mech
- New developments: non-equilibrium QFT

Goal: Derive dependence of YB on parameters Lnew systematically (controlled approximations)

Topological transitions

Broken phase

nL produced in wall & diffuses in front

1st order phase transition

FWS(x) !0 deep inside bubble

Systematic BaryogenesisCohen, Kaplan, Nelson Joyce, Prokopec, Turok

“snow”

Topological transitions

…

+

Compute from first principles given Lnew

Broken phase

1st order phase transition

=

+

+

Systematic BaryogenesisRiotto Carena et al Lee, Cirigliano, Tulin, R-M

Quantum Transport Equation

Schwinger-Dyson Equations

+

=

+

+

Systematic BaryogenesisDeparture from equilibrium

- Non-adiabatic evolution of states & degeneracies
- Non-thermal distributions

Generalized Green’s Functions: Closed Time Path

Exploit scale hierarchy: expand in scale ratios e

Non-equilibrium Quantum Field Theory

Closed Time Path (CTP) Formulation

Conventional, T=0 equilibrium field theory:

Non-equilibrium Quantum Field Theory

Two assumptions:

- Non-degenerate spectrum
- Adiabatic switch-on of LI

LI

M(T)

GP(T)

vW > 0: Non-adiabaticity

Decoherence time:

td ~ 1/(vW k)

vW

e.g., particle in an expanding box

Scale HierarchyTime Scales

Plasma time:

tP ~ 1/GP

<< 1

Time scales:

<< 1

ed = tint / td ~ vwk/ w

tint ~ 1/w tP ~ 1/GPtd ~ 1/(vwk)

GP ~ 3Cf aT/ 8

w2 ~ m2 +2pa Cf T2+ k2

Energy scales:

k / w < 1

vw ~ 0.1

em = m / T << 1

Scale Hierarchy+

Approximations

CP violating sources

Expand in ed,p,m

+

- neglect O(e3) terms

Chiral Relaxation

Producing nL = 0

From S-D Equations:

Strong sphalerons

- SCPV
- GM , GH , GY , GSS

- SCPV
- GM , GH , GY

…

+

Riotto, Carena et al, Lee et al

Lee et al

Numerical work:

- GSS

Currents

Links CP violation in Higgs and baryon sectors

Quantum Transport EquationsBosons

sfermions

gauginos

Higgsinos

Charginos, neutralinos

SUSY: a candidate symmetry of the early UniverseSupersymmetry

SUSY and R Parity

If nature conserves

vertices have even number of superpartners

- Lightest SUSY particle

is stable

viable dark matter candidate

- Proton is stable

- Superpartners appear only in loops

Consequences

2nd order

Increasing mh

1st order PT in MSSM: mh < 120 GeV

mh>114.4 GeV

Constraint on mhrelaxed for larger gauge/Higgs sector (NMSSM, etc.)

or ~ 90 GeV (SUSY)

Systematic Baryogenesis: MSSMLEP EWWG

See, e.g., Kang et al for U(1)’

0

-mZ cosb sinqW

mZ cosb cosqW

T ~TEW : scattering of H,W from background field

MN =

~

~

mZ sinb sinqW

M2

-mZ sinb sinqW

0

0

-m

-mZ cosb sinqW

mZ cosb cosqW

-m

T << TEW : mixing of H,W to c+, c0

mZ sinb sinqW

-mZ sinb sinqW

0

~

~

~

~

M2

MC =

m

Systematic Baryogenesis: MSSMChargino Mass Matrix

Neutralino Mass Matrix

T ~TEW : scattering of fL, fR from background field

~

~

T << TEW : mixing of fL, fR to f1, f2

~

~

Qf < 0

Qf > 0

~

~

Systematic Baryogenesis: MSSMSfermion mass matrix

Approximations

- neglect O(e3) terms
- supergauge equilibrium:

- neglect O(e3) terms
- supergauge equilibrium:

- Higgs vev expansion

Neutral gauginos = Majorana fermions

Supersymmetric Sources (mSUGRA)Previous work:

- neglect O(e3) terms
- supergauge equilibrium:

GY >> G(-,+)

Effect decouples:

- Higgs vev expansion
- Yukawa decoupling

Links rB to Higgsinos

Supersymmetric Sources (mSUGRA)O (emep)

- neglect O(e3) terms
- supergauge equilibrium:

- Higgs vev expansion
- Yukawa decoupling
- Fast supergauge int

(Super) gauge interactions

Strong 1st order PT: light stop

r parameter: heavy LH stop

mh < 120 GeV:

Bubble wall parameters:

Illustrative choice:

SUSY InputsFuture: EDMs & LHC

de

dn

BBN

WMAP

BAU-DM

Lee et al

Large Hadron Collider

Large Hadron Collider

EDM constraints & SUSY CPVHeavier sleptons: weaker one-loop EDM constraints & less resonant baryogenesis

EDM constraints & SUSY CPVOne-loop de & slepton mass

EDM constraints & SUSY CPV

One-loop vs. Two-loop EDMs

Neutralino-driven baryogenesis

Baryogenesis

LEP II Exclusion

Two loop de

SUGRA: M2 ~ 2M1

AMSB: M1 ~ 3M2

EDM constraints & SUSY CPV0

-mZ cosb sinqW

mZ cosb cosqW

MN =

mZ sinb sinqW

M2

-mZ sinb sinqW

0

0

-m

-mZ cosb sinqW

mZ cosb cosqW

-m

T << TEW : mixing of H,W to c+, c0

mZ sinb sinqW

-mZ sinb sinqW

0

~

~

~

~

- = N11B 0 + N12W 0 + N13Hd0 + N14Hu0

BINO

WINO

HIGGSINO

+ res

+ coannihilation

Relic Abundance of SUSY DMNeutralino Mass Matrix

Neutralino-driven baryogenesis

suppressed

too fast

LEP II Exclusion

Non-thermal c0

SUGRA: M2 ~ 2M1

AMSB: M1 ~ 3M2

Dark Matter: Relic AbundanceSummary & Outlook

- EWB remains a viable option for explaining the cosmic baryon asymmetry that can be tested and constrained using EDMs, precision electroweak, and collider input
- New developments using non-equilibrium QFT are putting YB computations on a more systematic footing that will allow for detailed confrontations with lab experiments
- Considerable (hard) work remains to be completed
- Exciting field involving an interplay between cosmology and particle/nuclear physics in both theory and experiment

Complete set of transport coefficients, refined studies of bubble dynamics, applications to various scenarios for new CP-violation, phenomenology (EDM, Dark Matter, B physics, precision electroweak, collider)

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