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Origin of Matter. HON-3230 Chance, Emergence or Design. GUT’s. Standard Model Quarks Leptons Force carriers String Theory Objects at 10 - 35 m. p. Parallax. Shift in distant objects due to a change in perspective. Satellite Hipparcos Measure 2.5 million stars

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Origin of Matter

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    1. Origin of Matter HON-3230 Chance, Emergence or Design Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    2. Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    3. GUT’s • Standard Model • Quarks • Leptons • Force carriers • String Theory • Objects at 10-35 m Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    4. p Parallax • Shift in distant objects due to a change in perspective. • Satellite Hipparcos • Measure 2.5 million stars • Up to 800 ly in distance Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    5. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram • Hot stars • Bright • Blue • Cool stars • Dim • Red • Brightness reduced with distance Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    6. How Big is the Universe? • Current model 13 billion light years • Single origin • Unique properties Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    7. Accepted Model - IBB Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    8. Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    9. Evidences for IBB • Hubble Constant • Nucleosynthesis • 73% H, 24% He, 3% other • Microwave Background • Large Scale Structure • Evidence of Dark Matter Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    10. WMAP • Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe • Sensitivity – 20 mK • Resolution – 0.3° • Red – Warmer • Blue - Cooler Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    11. Christianity and Big Bang • Evidence for the Big Bang is very convincing. • Is. 40:22 – God “stretches out the heavens.” • It implies a beginning of space and time. • Parameters of Big Bang so precise that it would require God to do it. Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    12. Inflation • Universe “too” uniform, therefore, it must have expanded very quickly. • Within the first 10-32 seconds the Universe expands to from a pin point to 1 m. • Initially the speed of light is exceeded by a factor of 1023 • Quintessence – Additional force that causes the expansion of the universe to increase. • Chaotic Inflation – Multiple universes randomly appear and wipe out other universes. (Linde) Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    13. Chaotic Inflation Subsequent Inflations Of different Properties Initial Inflation v Time Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    14. Nothingness: Explained • Norse Mythology (Gylfaginning) “In the beginning not anything existed, there was no sand nor sea nor cooling waves; earth was unknown and heaven above only Ginnungagap(open void) was --- there was no grass.” Sturluson (1954) • Greek Mythology (formless void) • A Universe from Nothing (Unstable Subtratum)

    15. Stability from Instability • The presence of gravity prevents additional spontaneous formation due to Conservation of Energy. • An inflationary event can introduce positive mass/energy through a transition from a “false vacuum.” • An inflationary unstable substratum could be generating an infinite number of different types of universes causally disconnected from ours. (Guth) • A Universe from Nothing, Krauss (2012) • “This is so strikingly non-intuitive that it can seem almost magical.” • “Our universe is so vast that, as I have emphasized, something that is not impossible is virtually guaranteed to occur somewhere within it. Rare events happen all the time.”

    16. Nothingness: Response • Spontaneous formation of life and mind • Life comes spontaneously from a physical substratum • Mind comes spontaneously from a biological substratum • Our universe is an epiphenomenon of the cosmic substratum • Critique • Nothingness cannot be examined unless it is physical. • Nothingness has properties and obeys laws, but can only be inferred from conceptual consistency. • If everything possible is “virtually guaranteed,” does that tell us anything about what is real.

    17. Universe from Nothing • “This leads to a radically different view of cosmology, and the relation between cause and effect. The histories that contribute to the Feynman sum don't have an independent existence, but depend on what is being measured. We create history by our observation, rather than history creating us." Hawking and Mlodinow (2010) • “The tapestry that science weaves in describing the evolution of our universe is far richer and far more fascinating than any revelatory images or imaginative stories that humans have concocted. Nature comes up with surprises that far exceed those that the human imagination can generate.” Krauss (2012) Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    18. Truth Claims of the Universe’s Origin • “According to M-theory, ours is not the only universe. Instead, M-theory predicts that a great many universes were created out of nothing. Their creation does not require the intervention of some supernatural being or god. Rather, these multiple universes arise naturally from physical law. They are a prediction of science.” Hawking and Mlodinow (2010) • “The answers that have been obtained – from staggeringly beautiful experimental observations, as well as from the theories that underlie much of modern physics – all suggest that getting something from nothing is not a problem. Indeed, something from nothing may have been required for the universe to come into being. Moreover, all signs suggest that this is how our universe could have arisen.” Krauss (2010)

    19. Young Creation Models • How does distant light get to us? • Light created in transit. • Speed of light is slowing down. • White hole cosmology • Non-uniform properties of space Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    20. Big Bang Critique • Dark Energy (73%) (Quintessence ) • Dark Matter (23%) (Exotic – Non Baryonic) • Laws of Thermodynamics • Inflation • Exceed speed of light by 1024× • Not constrained enough • “...supporters of Big Bang cosmology gain for themselves a large bag of free parameters that can subsequently be tuned as the occasion may require.”(Burbidge, Hoyle, & Narlikar) Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    21. x y 1 2 2 5 3 6 4 7 5 10 6 10 Modeling Data Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    22. e- e- e- Fundamental Paradox • Wave/Particle Duality • Electron can be in multiple states at one time. • Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem • Can not have an all encompassing theory of everything. • Finiteness of man Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    23. End of Science? • Positivism • Progress towards an ultimate understanding of the nature of reality. • Limitation • All universal models will be incomplete and possibly paradoxical. • Does not eliminate the usefulness of the model. Steven Gollmer Cedarville University

    24. Current Status of BB Cosmology • Universe is 13.7 billion years old, with a margin of error of close to 1%. • First stars ignited 200 million years after the Big Bang. • Light in the WMAP picture is from 379,000 years after the Big Bang. • Content of the Universe: • 4% Atoms, 23% Cold Dark Matter, 73% Dark Energy. • The data places new constraints on the Dark Energy. It seems more like a "cosmological constant" than a negative-pressure energy field called "quintessence". But quintessence is not ruled out. • Fast moving neutrinos do not play any major role in the evolution of structure in the universe. They would have prevented the early clumping of gas in the universe, delaying the emergence of the first stars, in conflict with the new WMAP data. • Expansion rate (Hubble constant) value: Ho= 71 (km/sec)/Mpc (with a margin of error of about 5%) • New evidence for Inflation (in polarized signal) • For the theory that fits our data, the Universe will expand forever. (The nature of the dark energy is still a mystery. If it changes with time, or if other unknown and unexpected things happen in the universe, this conclusion could change.) From http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_mm/mr_limits.html Steven Gollmer Cedarville University