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Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

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Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

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  1. Autumn School & Workshop Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments September 23, 2013 Frank Rathmann (on behalf oftheJEDIcollaboration) Tbilisi, Georgia

  2. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicatedStorage Ring searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News • Timeline • Conclusion Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  3. Introduction: The bigchallenges Conventional HEP wisdom, but there is more than that … Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  4. Introduction: Physics Frontiers Search for theoriginof mass („Higgs“), SUSY Secrets of neutrinos Energy Intensity Frontiers of Physical Sciences Cosmic Complexity Quest for „Dark Matter“ and „Dark Energy“ Precision (In-)stability of the proton Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  5. Introduction: Precision Frontier ESPP, Cracow, September 2012 A most promising additional frontier: Precision Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  6. Introduction: Precision Frontier Example: Neutron (nEDM) Adaptedfrom: Nature, Vol 482 (2012) Search forElectric Dipole Moments (EDM) of fundamental particles Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  7. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicatedStorage Ring searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News • Timeline • Conclusion Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  8. Physics: Fundamental Particles Charge symmetricNoEDM () : MDM : EDM Do particles(e.g., electron, nucleon) have an EDM? Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  9. EDMs: DiscreteSymmetries Not Charge symmetric (aligned w/ spin) Permanent EDMs violate P and T. Assuming CPT to hold, CPviolated also. Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  10. Physics:Whatcausedthe Baryon asymmetry? Carina Nebula: Largest-seen star-birth regions in the galaxy Whathappenedtothe antimatter? Sakharov (1967): Three conditions for baryogenesis B number conservation violated sufficiently strongly C and CP violated, B and anti-Bs with different rates Evolution of universe outside thermal equilibrium The mysteryofthemissing antimatter (the puzzle ofourexistence) Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  11. Physics: Potential of EDMs J.M. Pendlebury: „nEDMhaskilledmoretheoriesthananyothersingleexpt.“ Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  12. Physics: Limits for Electric Dipole Moments EDM searches– onlyupperlimitsyet(in ) Huge efforts underway worldwide to improve limits / find EDMs Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  13. Physics: Ongoing/plannedSearches new P. Harris, K. Kirch … A huge worldwide effort EDM searches at COSY: Overview of COSY plans and activities

  14. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicatedStorage Ring searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News • Timeline • Conclusion Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  15. Principle: Frozen spin Method Fortransverseelectricandmagneticfields in a ring ( ), anomalousspin precession isdescribedbyThomas-BMT equation: x Magic condition: Spin alongmomentumvector Foranysignof, in a combinedelectricandmagneticmachine 2. For(protons) in an all electric ring (magic)  Magic rings tomeasure EDMs offreechargeparticles Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  16. Principle: Rings forsrEDMsearches • Place particles in a storage ring • Alignspinalongmomentum („Freeze“ horizontal spinprecession) • Search for time developmentofverticalpolarization New Methodtomeasure EDMs offreechargedparticles: Magic rings withspinfrozenalongmomentum Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  17. EDMs: Storage ring projects pEDM in all electric ring at BNL Jülich, focus on deuterons, or a combinedmachine orat FNAL (fromR. Talman) CW and CCW propagatingbeams (from A. Lehrach) Twoprojects: US (BNL or FNAL) andEurope (FZJ) Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  18. Beat systematics: BNL Proposal 2 beamssimultaneouslyrotating in an all electricring (cw, ccw) CW & CCW beams cancels systematic effects • Status: • ApprovedBNL-Proposal • Submittedto DOE • Interest at FNAL! • Goal forprotons Manytechnologicalchallengestobemet Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  19. Principle: Magic Storage ring A magicstorage ring forprotons (electrostatic), deuterons, … B Possible tomeasure, , usingONEmachinewithm Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  20. CCW & CCW withmagneticfield:Richard Talmansconceptfor a Jülich all-in-onemachine Iron-free, current-only, magnetic bending, eliminates hysteresis B A Configurationgeneratesclose-to-perfectverticalBfield B A Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  21. Magic ring: Jülich all-in-onemachine(R. Talmansconcept) B Maximum achievablefieldofcoppermagnets T. VerycompactmachinespossibleforsrEDMsearches Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  22. EDMs – Sensitivity Reach EDM search in charged baryon (systems) pEDM dEDM Adaptedfrom: Nature, Vol 482 (2012) NodirectmeasurementsforprotonanddeuteronEDM yet ! Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  23. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicated Storage Ring Searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News • Timeline • Conclusion Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  24. srEDMsearches: Technogicalchallenges • Chargedparticle EDM searchesrequiredevelopmentof a newclassof high-precisionmachineswithmainlyelectricfieldsforbendingandfocussing. • Other topics: • Electric fieldgradients • Spin coherence time • Continuous polarimetry • Beam positioning • Spin tracking These issues must beaddressedexperimentallyatexistingfacilities Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  25. Challenge: Electric field for magic rings Rfieldonly Challenge toproduce large electricfieldgradients Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  26. Challenge: Niobium electrodes DPP stainlesssteel fine-grainNb Show oneslide on JLAB data HV devices large-grainNb single-crystalNb large-grainNb Large-grainNbatplateseparationof a few cm yields ~20 MV/m Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  27. Challenge: Electric field for magic rings Electrostatic separatorsatTevatronusedtoavoidunwanted interactions - electrodesmadefromstainlesssteel L~2.5 m Routine operationatspark/Year atMV/m Fall 2013: Transfer ofseparatorunit plus equipmentfrom FNAL to Jülich Need todevelopnewelectrodematerialsandsurfacetreatments Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  28. “spin closed orbit vector” makes one turn “spin tune” if ║ ring stable polarization A Challenge: Spin coherence time Spin closedorbit one particle with magnetic moment Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  29. Challenge: Spin coherence time Weusuallydon‘tworryaboutcoherenceofspinsalong Polarization not affected! Atinjection all spinvectorsaligned (coherent) After some time, spinvectorsget out ofphaseandfullypopulatethecone Situation very different, whenyou deal withmachineswithfrozenspin. Longitudinal polarizationvanishes! Atinjection all spinvectorsaligned Later, spinvectorsare out ofphase in the horizontal plane In an EDM machine with frozen spin, observation time is limited. Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  30. Challenge:SCT stimates (N.N. Nikolaev) Onesourceofspincoherencearerandomvariationsofthespin tune due tothemomentumspread in the beam and israndomizedby e.g., electroncooling Estimate: Spin coherence time for deuterons may be 𝟏𝟎𝟎× larger than for protons Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  31. EDM at COSY: COolerSYnchrotron Cooler andstorage ring for(polarized)protonsanddeuterons Phase space cooledinternal & extractedbeams COSY … the spin-physics machine for hadron physics … an ideal startingpoint for a srEDMsearch Injector cyclotron Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  32. Challenge: First measurementof SCT 2011 Test measurementsat COSY Polarimetry: Spin coherence time: from Ed Stephenson and Greta Guidoboni decoherence time oscillation capture Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  33. Challenge: SCT recentachievements Resultfrom 2012 run from Ed Stephenson (Indiana) and Greta Guidoboni (Ferrara) Excellentprogresstowardsthe SCT goalforpEDM:s Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  34. Challenge: Polarimetry Beam polarimetry atppm levelachievedfordeuteronbeams Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  35. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicated Storage Ring Searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News • Timeline • Conclusion Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  36. Precursorexperiments: RF methods Methodbased on makingspinprecession in machine resonant withorbitmotion Twoways: Use an RF devicethatoperates on someharmonicsofthespinprecessionfrequency Operate ring on an imperfectionresonance Useexistingmagneticmachinesforfirstdirect EDM measurements Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  37. Precursorexperiments: 1. ResonanceMethodwith „magic“ RF Wien filter Avoidscoherentbetatronoscillationsof beam. Radial RF-E andvertical RF-B fieldstoobservespinrotation due to EDM. Approach pursuedfor a firstdirectmeasurementat COSY.  „Magic RF Wien Filter“no Lorentz force Indirect EDM effect Observable: Accumulationofverticalpolarizationduringspincoherence time RF E(B)-field In-plane polarization stored d Polarimeter (dpelastic) • Statistical sensitivityfor in therange to rangepossible. • Alignmentandfieldstabilityof ring magnets • Imperfectionof RF-E(B) flipper Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  38. Precursorexperiments: 1. ResonanceMethodfordeuteronsat COSY Parameters: beam energy assumed EDM E-field • EDM effect accumulates in Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  39. Precursorexperiments: 1. ResonanceMethodfordeuteronsat COSY Parameters: beam energy assumed EDM E-field EDM effectaccumulates in Linear extrapolationoffortime periodofyields. Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  40. Development: RF E/B-Flipper (RF Wien Filter) Upgrade testflipperwithelectrostaticfieldplatesready end ofyear. Buildlower power versionusing a striplinesystem Build high-power versionofstriplinesystem () Work byS. Mey, R. Gebel (Jülich) J. Slim, D. Hölscher (IHF RWTH Aachen) Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  41. Precursorexperiments: 2. Resonant EDM measurementwithstaticWien Filter Machineoperated on imperfectionspinresonanceat withoutstatic WF Spin rotation in phasewithorbitmotion Similaraccumulationof EDM signal, systematicsmoredifficult, strengthofimperfectionresonance must besuppressedbyclosed-orbit corrections. Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  42. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicated Storage Ring Searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News • Timeline • Conclusion Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  43. New EDM collaborationestablished May theforcebewithus! In 2012, JEDIcollaborationfounded (members) Jülich ElectricDipole Moment Investigations Spokespersons: Andreas Lehrach (Jülich) Jörg Pretz (RWTH Aachen) F.R. (Jülich) Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  44. Outline • Introduction • Electric Dipole Moments • Chargedparticle EDM searches • Concepts fordedicated Storage Ring Searches • Technological challenges • Precursor Experiments • News • Timeline • Conclusion Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  45. Timeline: Stepwiseapproachall-in-onemachineforJEDI Time scale: Steps1 and 2: years (i.e., in POF 3) Steps3 and 4: years Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  46. Conclusion • Measurements of EDMs extremelydifficult, but fantasticphysicsreach • Twostorage ring projects • BNL all-electricmachineatmagicmomentum () • Jülich all-in-onemachineconcept (, , ) • Pursue SCT investigationsat COSY • VerygoodprospectsforfirstdirectEDM measurementsofandat COSYusingresonancemethodsbased on RF E(B)–fields • JEDIcollaborationestablished: • Collaborations workjointly on technologicalchallenges: • Polarimetry, SCT, E-fieldgeneration, BPMs, etc • Strong needfor high precisionspintrackingtools, incl. RF structures • Electrostaticdeflectordevelopmentusing FNAL equipment Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  47. “Man mußetwasNeuesmachen, um etwasNeueszusehen.” “You have to make (create) something new, if you want to see something new” Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (1742-1799) Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  48. Spares Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  49. Physics: Potential of EDMs N. Arkani-Hamed (IAS, Princeton) atIntensityFrontier WS, USA (2011) Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments

  50. EDMs: Whyis CPV so interesting? • CPV in the SM points to physics we do not understand • CPV is highly sensitive to physics beyond the SM (New Physics) • CPV is accessible to a wide range of experiments • New source of CPV beyond the SM required for baryogenesis Physicsbeyondthe Standard Model (BSM) Search for permanent Electric Dipole Moments