Subject languages part 2:. Structure. Structure of subject languages. Alphabetical representation and classified representation. Synthetic structure and enumerative structure. Parallel hierarchies and facets. Examples of alphabetic representation. Architecture Art Biology Chemistry
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BT Fine arts
NT Landscape architecture
BT Life sciences
NT Evolutionary biology, molecular biology
Arts and sciences
In Ranganathan’s Colon Classification, subjects are constructed by arranging concepts from the facets Personality, Matter, Energy, Space, and Time (PMEST).
In the Dewey Decimal Classification, geographic information is appended to a class name by means of standard tables. An example from the Dewey blog:
368.85400973 Bank deposit insurance—United States
The number is built with 368.854 plus 0 (extra 0 for standard subdivisions as instructed in the add table under 368.1–368.8 Specific kinds of insurance) plus T1—09 Geographic treatment plus T2—73 United States.
Warburg Institute classification: Image hierarchy main classes
Primitive Art, Oriental Art, Classical Archaeology, Classical Topography, Classical Iconography, Numismatics, Greek Art, Roman Art, History of Art, Sources of the History of Art, Art Interpretation, Aesthetics, Topography, Iconography, Survival Of Ancient Art, Early Christian & Byzantine Art, Illuminated Manuscripts, Italian Art, Spanish Art, French Art, Flemish & Dutch Art, British Art, German Art, Scandinavian Art, Applied Arts, Art Collecting, 19th & 20th Century Art
From the Eurovoc thesaurus, used to describe EU government documents:
0406 political framework
0411 political party
0416 electoral procedure and voting
0426 parliamentary proceedings
0431 politics and public safety
0436 executive power and public service
08 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
0806 international affairs
0811 cooperation policy
0816 international balance
10 EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
1006 Community institutions and European civil service
1011 European Union law
1016 European construction
1021 Community finance
In the Bliss Bibliographic Classification (BBC v.2), the Human Biology and Medicine field is organized into the following facets:
A document whose subject is nursing for children with cancer would be described as:
(Type of person) Paediatrics - (Processes) - Pathological - Cancer - (Actions on) Nursing
Example from Bliss Classification Association: http://www.blissclassification.org.uk/bchist.htm
Universal hierarchies (mammal -> dog). Always true!
Perspective hierarchies (pet -> dog, or work animal -> dog, or food -> dog). Only true under a certain point of view or certain conditions.
Can a subject language ever attain universality?
Follow the all-some rule—X is a type of Y if all X’s are Y’s but only some Y’s are X’s: all dogs are mammals but not all mammals are dogs. All the sibling concepts should follow the same principle of division and be mutually exclusive, or multiple principles of division should be elucidated through the structure.
Often treated as associative relationships in subject languages. A few exceptions:
Not types but instances: they involve proper names (Seas: Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea). Not part of your subject language!
Single principle of division
Unclear principles of division
paintings by representational focus
paintings by style
paintings by materials used
paintings by means of support
These might be separate facets for a classification of paintings:
Means of support
According to Kwasnik, a tree is a looser form that shows a consistent principle of organization, but does not have the strict rules of inheritance and so forth that hierarchies have.
An excerpt of a classified structure for an “expressive gardening” classification that includes “garden decor” as a concept:
Principles of garden expression
Means of garden expression
An excerpt of an alphabetical structure for an “expressive gardening” classification that includes “garden decor” as a concept:
broader term: means of garden expression
definition: non-plant materials that add visual interest and, potentially, functionality(such as a place to sit) to the garden space. Benches, garden sculpture, and windchimes are all elements of garden decor.
scope note:Documents that describe elements of garden decor, advise on their purchase, and explain their use should all be indexed with this term. Documents that describe the principles by which decor is selected and placed should be indexed under the principle. Non-plant materials that are used to facilitate plant growth or structure (such as arbors) are considered plant support, not decor.