problems in replication and protein synthesis n.
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Problems in Replication and Protein Synthesis

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  1. Problems in Replication and Protein Synthesis

  2. Mutations -mutation- random change in genetic material -can happen during replication, transcription, translation, or cell division

  3. Causes • Radiation and Chemicals can also cause mutations • (UV rays, x-rays, nuclear radiation)

  4. Deletions and Insertion(Frame shift) -part of the DNA is deleted or inserted A-T-C-G-T-T-G-C-A Original A-T-C-A-G-T-T-G-C-A Insertion A-T-C--T-T-G-C-A Deletion

  5. Duplications (Frameshift) -part of the DNA is duplicated

  6. Substitutions • One base pair is switched for another • A-T-C-G-T-T-G-C-A Original • A-T-C-G-C-T-G-C-A Substitution

  7. Inversions -part of the DNA is reversed A-T-C-G-T-T-G-C-A A-T-C-G-T-A-C-G-T-

  8. Translocations -part of the DNA is moved to a different spot A-A-A-T-C-G-T-A-C T-C-G-A-A-A-T-A-C

  9. Nondisjunction Nondisjunction- failure of homologous chromosomes to separate normally during meiosis.

  10. Predicting Proteins • Predict the protein • DNA = ATG CGG • RNA = UAC GCC • Prot. = Tyr Ala