Problems in replication and protein synthesis
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Problems in Replication and Protein Synthesis. Mutations . -mutation- random change in genetic material -can happen during replication, transcription, translation, or cell division. Causes. Radiation and Chemicals can also cause mutations (UV rays, x-rays, nuclear radiation).

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Presentation Transcript

Mutations
Mutations

-mutation- random change in genetic material

-can happen during replication, transcription, translation, or cell division


Causes
Causes

  • Radiation and Chemicals can also cause mutations

  • (UV rays, x-rays, nuclear radiation)


Deletions and insertion frame shift
Deletions and Insertion(Frame shift)

-part of the DNA is deleted or inserted

A-T-C-G-T-T-G-C-A Original

A-T-C-A-G-T-T-G-C-A Insertion

A-T-C--T-T-G-C-A Deletion


Duplications frameshift
Duplications (Frameshift)

-part of the DNA is duplicated


Substitutions
Substitutions

  • One base pair is switched for another

  • A-T-C-G-T-T-G-C-A Original

  • A-T-C-G-C-T-G-C-A Substitution


Inversions
Inversions

-part of the DNA is reversed

A-T-C-G-T-T-G-C-A

A-T-C-G-T-A-C-G-T-


Translocations
Translocations

-part of the DNA is moved to a different spot

A-A-A-T-C-G-T-A-C

T-C-G-A-A-A-T-A-C


Nondisjunction
Nondisjunction

Nondisjunction- failure of homologous chromosomes to separate normally during meiosis.


Predicting proteins
Predicting Proteins

  • Predict the protein

  • DNA = ATG CGG

  • RNA = UAC GCC

  • Prot. = Tyr Ala