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6.3 & 6.4 Causes of the Revolution. What were the causes of the American Revolution?. Key Terms. Tea Act East India Tea Company Smuggling Committees of Correspondence Boston Tea Party Sons of Liberty Samuel Adams Benjamin Franklin Coercive or Intolerable Acts.

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6 3 6 4 causes of the revolution
6.3 & 6.4 Causes of the Revolution

What were the causes of the American Revolution?

Key terms
Key Terms

  • Tea Act

  • East India Tea Company

  • Smuggling

  • Committees of Correspondence

  • Boston Tea Party

  • Sons of Liberty

  • Samuel Adams

  • Benjamin Franklin

  • Coercive or Intolerable Acts

  • First Continental Congress

  • Patrick Henry

  • Lexington & Concord

  • Second Continental Congress

  • Fort Ticonderoga

  • Washington

  • Bunker Hill

  • Charles Town

  • Olive Branch Petition

  • Benedict Arnold

The tea act
The Tea Act

  • The boycott works again!

  • Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts in April 1770, but left the tax on tea to show it was still in charge

  • Colonists are angered at the remaining tax

  • Drank smuggled tea from Holland

  • Many British tea companies lost money

Review questions
Review Questions

  • Why did the Crown leave the tax on tea after it repealed the remaining Townshend Acts?

  • Where do colonists get smuggled tea from?

  • Why were the British tea companies upset?

1773 tea act
1773 Tea Act

  • Gave a monopoly (total control over the market) to the East India Tea Company

  • The company had the exclusive right to sell tea to the colonists

  • The act lowered the price of tea in the colonies, restricted colonists from acting as shippers and merchants

  • See the act as another attempt to interfere in the colonial economy

  • Choose to still purchase smuggled tea

  • What is a monopoly?

  • Who was given a monopoly over the tea market in the colonies?

  • Describe the major effects of the act.

  • Why do colonists continue to smuggle tea even when it is cheaper to purchase it under the monopoly?

Committees of correspondence
Committees of Correspondence

  • Organized to unite the colonies by keeping them informed, spreading news on colonial affairs and resistance to British policy, to neighboring towns and colonial leaders

  • Organized in Boston and spread throughout the colonies

Boston tea party
Boston Tea Party

  • December 16, 1773

  • Organized by the Sons of Liberty and led by Samuel Adams

  • Dressed as American Indians, Boarded three ships and dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor

  • British officials angry at the destruction of property!

  • Some colonial officials, such as Benjamin Franklin weren’t thrilled with the destruction and offer to pay for the tea if Parliament would repeal the hated Tea Act.

  • Refused!

Coercive or intolerable acts
Coercive or Intolerable Acts

  • In reaction to the Boston Tea Party

  • Closed the port of Boston until colonist paid for the destroyed tea

  • Banned town meetings

  • Repealed the elected council with an appointed one

  • Increased the governor’s power over the colonists

  • Protected British officials accused of crimes in the colonies from being tried by colonists

  • Allowed British officers to house troops in private dwellings

  • General Thomas Gage was appointed to enforce the acts

First continental congress
First Continental Congress

  • September 1774 delegates from the colonies, except Georgia, met

  • Voted to ban all trade with Great Britain until the Intolerable Acts were repealed

  • Called on each colony to begin training troops

Patrick henry
Patrick Henry

  • “Give me Liberty or Give me Death!”

    • Virginia House of Burgesses, 1774


  • “Minute Men” refused to disperse and shots were fired killing 8 Americans, wounding many more

  • “Lexington Massacre”

  • Redcoats pushed to Concord, but forced to retreat back to Boston due to the minutemen, suffering hundreds of casualties


11. Where were the first shots of the American Revolution?

12. What resulted from theses first encounters with the minutemen by the British?

The siege of boston
The Siege of Boston

  • After Lexington and Concord, 15,000 militia from all over New England surround Boston

Fort ticonderoga
Fort Ticonderoga

  • Plan: Capture the British fort, Fort Ticonderoga

  • May 10, 1775: Ethan Allen led his backwoods fighters “Green Mountain Boys” to capture the fort and its artillery

  • The Second Continental Congress met in Philly one month after Lexington and Concord

Second continental congress
Second Continental Congress Boys?

  • There was no real sentiment for independence at the time!

  • Hoped the fighting would force the King and Parliament to address the concerns and complaints of the colonists!

Second continental congress1

America’s government during the War Boys?


John Adams, Sam Adams, Ben Franklin,

George Washington, Patrick Henry

Second Continental Congress

Measures adopted
Measures Adopted Boys?

  • Raise $$$

  • Create an army and navy

  • Washington chosen to lead the fight

George washington
George Washington Boys?

  • Washington was chosen as commanding general and serves without pay during the war

George washington1
George Washington Boys?

  • Tall, powerfully built, dignified, blue-eyed

  • Leadership skills and strength in character

  • Great moral leader: People trusted him!

  • Virginia planter: from the largest and most populous colony

  • Wealthy from inheritance and marriage

Battle of bunker hill
Battle of Bunker Hill Boys?

  • Boston, June 1775 Militiamen at Bunker Hill and Breeds Hill

  • British decide to attack

  • General Howe crossed the bay with 2,200 soldiers and set Charlestown on fire

  • Climb Breed’s Hill toward the Americans

What was the government of the colonies during the war? Boys?

What measures did they adopt?

Bunker hill
Bunker Hill Boys?

  • The British attack and climb the hill towards the Americans

  • Colonel William Prescott “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes!”

  • British fell back, charged again and took the hill

  • Redcoats win the battle, BUT lose 1,000 killed or wounded

  • Colonials had held there own against the most powerful army in the world!

Olive branch petition
Olive Branch Petition Boys?

  • Last ditch effort for peace

  • Congress drafts the petition stating their loyalty to King George III and asks for peace

  • Announced new measures

    • British would blockade American ports, prevent their ships from leaving

    • Would send thousands of Hessians, paid German soldiers to fight

Soldiers Boys?

  • British:

    Well-trained and equipped

  • Americans:

    Little training, poorly equipped, little gunpowder

Canada Boys?

  • Summer 1775, Washington arrives at a militia camp near Boston

  • He approves a plan to invade Canada at Quebec

  • Hoped to draw Canadians into the cause

  • Benedict Arnold: One of the leaders & an officer who played a major role at Ticonderoga

  • Fails

British retreat from boston
British Retreat From Boston Boys?

  • Cannons were being hauled from Fort Ticonderoga

  • General Henry Knox led the troops and artillery to Boston

  • Cannons were positioned overlooking Boston

  • Americans threaten to bombard

  • Howe retreats March 17 with over 7,000 British troops in more than 100 ships