19 th C. Revolution/Reaction/Revolution. Congress of Vienna (1814). To decide what to do with the chaos of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars
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Many of the ideas and ideologies that shape our world originated or were modified in the 19th Century
Most of these –isms deal with economics; however, many also describe or impact the social systems of class and hierarchy and imply political action. Other –isms deal with politics and imply economic action. All are interrelated.
Uprising in Paris: 3 days of rioting and barricades; most of deputies (legislators) and some of army sided with the people (think Les Miserables and painting “Liberty Leading the People)
King abdicated and went to London in exile
“There were haggard-looking men certainly, but the majority were young persons, in their best Sunday's suits, and the light coloured dresses of the cheerful tidy-looking women relieved the effect of the dark fustians worn by the men. The " marching order," of which so much was said afterwards, was what we often see now in the processions of Sunday-school children and temperance societies. To our eyes the numerous flags seemed to have been brought to add to the picturesque effect of the pageant. Slowly and orderly the multitudes took their places round the hustings, which stood on a spot now included under the roof of the Free Trade Hall, near its south-east corner.
Our company laughed at the fears of the magistrates, and the remark was, that if the men intended mischief they would not have brought their wives, their sisters, or their children with them. I passed round the outskirts of the meeting, and mingled with the groups that stood chatting there. I occasionally asked the women if they were not afraid to be there, and the usual laughing reply was - " What have we to be afraid of?“
I saw Hunt arrive, and heard the shouts of the sixty thousand persons by whom he was enthusiastically welcomed, as the carriage in which he stood made its way through the dense crowd to the hustings. I proceeded to my dwelling-house in Salford, intending to return in about an hour or so to witness in what manner so large a meeting would separate.
I had not been at home more than a quarter of an hour when a wailing sound was heard from the main street, and, rushing out, I saw people running in the direction of Pendleton, their faces pale as death, and some with blood trickling down their cheeks. It was with difficulty I could get any one to stop and tell me what had happened. The unarmed multitude, men, women, and children, had been attacked with murderous results by the military.
Because of her repeated pregnancies and childbirths, she gradually (reluctantly) relinquished power to her husband, who in the German/British tradition, expected to take over power from his wife, a mere woman.
In the south and the west of Germany, large popular assemblies and mass demonstrations took place. They primarily demanded freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, arming of the people, and a national German parliament
2 main issues of controversy
Shortly following the victory of Prussia, Bismarck eliminated the Austrian ledGerman Confederation.
He then established a new North German Confederation which Prussia couldcontrol Peace of PragueBismarck at the helm:
Quickly defeat the French decisively
Prussian soldier “abusing” French maiden
Prussian “barbarian” vs French knight
King Victor Emmanuel II
Giuseppi Garibaldi[The “Sword”]
Giuseppi Mazzini[The “Heart”]
Count Cavour[The “Head”]
Pope Pius IX
Garibaldi fitting the boot of Italy onto Victor Emmanuel II