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19 th C. Revolution/Reaction/Revolution. Congress of Vienna (1814). To decide what to do with the chaos of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars

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19 th C

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19 th c

19th C


congress of vienna 1814
Congress of Vienna (1814)
  • To decide what to do with the chaos of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars
  • Pretty much four who met only informally to hash out settlement: Austria (Metternich), Prussia (Bismarck), Russia (Alexander I) and Britain + France (Talleyrand) trying to influence from the wings
  • VERY conservative: aim, to restore ancien regime and repudiate aims of liberals and French Revolution; spokesman of these ideals: Metternich
methods back to good old days
Methods: back to “good old days”
  • Wanted “balance of power” between great powers to prevent another empire from swallowing Europe
    • Lombardy (Napoleon seized) back to Austria +Venice
    • Belgium + Netherlands = kingdom of Holland as buffer vs France
    • Confederacy of Germany (39 states under Austria)
    • Prussia: territory along Rhine and half of Poland as buffer vs France
    • Britain got Capetown in So. Africa, Malta, kept Gibraltar
  • Restoration of old monarchies, as much as possible
    • Influence of Talleyrand: Bourbon Louis XVIII for France
    • Alexander I of Russia becomes King of Poland (remainder)
    • Strengthening of position of Austrian Habsburg monarchy
concert system
Concert System
  • Quadruple Alliance formed for periodic meetings of participants in Congress
    • 1818: added France, changed name to “Concert system”
  • Aim: to provide united front vs possible threat to conservative regimes:
    • Intervention Italy 1821 to put down revolution
    • Spain 1823 vs agitation for liberal change
    • BUT fought for liberation in Greek Revolution (1821-30) vs Ottoman (Turks) Empire
  • It worked: no major European wars first ½ of Century
  • BUT vs trend of thinking
    • Growth of liberalism and demand for reform
    • Ideas of Enlightenment and Romanticism promoted individual liberty and passion for scientific research and progress
    • Constitutionalism and right to vote for common people

Age of -isms

Many of the ideas and ideologies that shape our world originated or were modified in the 19th Century

Most of these –isms deal with economics; however, many also describe or impact the social systems of class and hierarchy and imply political action. Other –isms deal with politics and imply economic action. All are interrelated.

political concepts revived or new to the 19 th c
Political Concepts revived or new to the 19th C
  • Liberalism (see following slides): wanted to end inherited political and economic privileges and establish constitutional government based on legal equality and representation
  • Democracy: More radical than liberalism. Supported not only legal equality but also active political participation by the common man
  • Socialism: Even more radical. Property and wealth should be redistributed according to individual needs
  • Nationalism: States should be based not on dynastic principles, but on ethnic, linguistic, and historical bonds. Shared language, ethnicity, and history is highest principle of political organization

Class Consciousness

  • Owners – capitalists
  • Non-landed middle class and white collar workers – bourgeoisie
  • Factory and trade workers—proletariat


  • Reactionaries (Put it back the way it was)
  • Revolt against conservatism: Revolutions of 1848
    • Successful revolutions in most European countries
    • Monarchies returned after 6 months in all
  • Britain: party of conservatives: Tories/conservatives
  • pro landowners over commerce and middle class, monarchical, vs expanding electorate


  • Favored changing government to improve social conditions
  • Whigs
  • Edmund Burke
    • Opposite view of Nationalism: not natural rights of man, but traditional rights inherited as part of national legacy; no right to revolt if such “rights” not protected
    • Supported American Revolution, but decried the French Revolution—(split Whigs over French Revolution): believed in limited monarchy
    • Law of unintended consequences
      • Example: Prussia forced to take over the Ruhr Valley which, unknowingly, has the coal reserves to allow Prussia to conquer the rest of Germany
promoters of liberal ideals
Promoters of Liberal Ideals
  • Poets/novelists
  • Romantic idealism
    • Natural life superior (noble savage)
  • Aimed at complacent middle class
    • Charles Dickens
      • Social conditions
    • Honorè de Balzac
      • Stupid middle class
    • Jane Austen
      • Against classes
    • The Bronte sisters
      • Against male domination
waves of revolutions
Waves of Revolutions
  • 1821 beginning in France (again)
  • 1830
  • 1848-50
spain loses her empire
Spain Loses her Empire
  • Revolution of 1820
    • During Napoleonic Wars:
      • Throne from Charles III to Ferdinand (son) to Charles (Napoleon) who abdicated for Napoleon’s brother Joseph
      • Liberal nationalists with British support resisted French; set up Cortes of Cadiz (legislature): wrote Constitution of 1812
        • Limited monarchy with power in single chamber Cortes
        • Curb nobility and Catholic Church; abolish Spanish Inquisition
        • Protected individual rights
        • Voting to property owners; business powers gained voice
        • Only in force temporarily: rest of 19th C and much of 20th rebellions to put it in force
    • Ferdinand VII
      • Restored to power at Congress of Vienna
      • Promised to abide by constitution, but once in power, dissolved Cortes: absolutist rule
    • After several unsuccessful rebellions, 1820 successful revolution forced constitution of 1812 on king
    • Congress of Vienna powers met in Verona, ok’d French to invade to restore Ferdinand to absolute power
      • 1823 revoked constitution: ruthless repression of revolutionaries
      • When Ferdinand died, liberals supported his daughter as Isabella II and conservative forces supported his brother, Charles = Carlist Wars
      • All of these wars and rebellions from Napoleonic times forward resulted in weak colonial government from Spain—colonies began declaring and fighting for independence, ending only at turn of 20th Century with Spanish American War
mexican wars for independence
Mexican Wars for Independence
  • Conditions in Latin America encouraging rebellion:
    • Social stratification: peninsulares favored over criollos (Indios, mestizos, negros totally ignored and exploited by both groups)
    • Political exploitation: best offices to peninsulares; NOT based on talent and competence
simon bolivar
Simon Bolivar
  • one of South America's greatest generals
  • victories over the Spaniards won independence for Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela:
  • called El Liberator (The Liberator) and the "George Washington of South America."
    • Educated and grew up in Europe during Napoleonic times
    • Married, wife died of yellow fever, vowed never to remarry
    • Voice for independence in Europe:
    • Joined the group of patriots that seized Caracas in 1810 and proclaimed independence from Spain. 
      • went to Great Britain for aid,: only a promise of British neutrality. 
      • Wrote Cartagena Manifesto in which he argued that New Granada (Now Columbia, Ecuador, Panama) should help liberate Venezuela because their cause was the same and Venezuela's freedom would secure that of New Granada.
      • took command of a Colombian force and captured Bogota in 1814, but lacked men and supplies, and new defeats led Bolivar to flee to Jamaica.  In Haiti gathered a force, landed in Venezuela in 1816, took Angostra (now Ciudad Bolivar), became dictator there.
marched into New Granada, 1819, defeated the Spaniards in Boyar in 1819, liberating the territory of Colombia.  He then returned to Angostura and led the congress that organized the original republic of Colombia (now Ecuador, Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela) and became its first president, 1819.
  • crushed the Spanish army at Carabobo in Venezuela, 1821. 
  • marched into Educador and added that territory to the new Colombian republic. 
  • After a meeting in 1822 with San Martin, Bolivar fought for and became dictator of Peru; victory over the Spaniards at Auacucho in 1824 ended Spanish power in South America. 
  • Upper Peru became a separate state, (Bolivia, after Bolivar) in 1825.  The constitution which he drew up for Bolivia is one of his most important political pronouncements.
louis xviii
  • Son of brother of Louis XV; nephew of Louis XVI restored to power by Congress of Vienna
  • Agreed to grant charter making him a monarch on British pattern, even though really believed in “divine right”
    • King executive; legislative him + 2 chambered legislature: 1 appointed by him, 1 by restricted suffrage
  • After Napoleon’s 100 days, Congress of Vienna took harsh measures vs France
    • Lost Savoy
    • occupation by foreign troops until paid war reparations indemnity of 700 million in gold (130 million/yr); talks brought it down to 265 million, but still more than whole annual budget
    • Elected chamber = stubborn royalists, so Allies forced out and elected new one which sped up indemnity payments and got troops out
Military: conscription by lot, promotion by ability, Not controlled by nobility
  • BUT suppressed press; gave double vote to the rich
  • Spain 1821: insurrection forced king to swear by constitution; coup attempt put power in hands of extreme left; king virtual prisoner to revolutionaries
    • Alexander and Metternich voted to intervene to stop revolution
    • England neutral, but didn’t want France intervening
    • Fr Minister of Foreign Affairs, Montmorency, secretly sent arms to Spanish royalists
    • Eventually Louis forced into war: sent 95,000 into Spain; easily marched to Madrid and restored Ferdinand to throne—brought prestige to Louis
  • Opposition power under Chateaubriand
    • Minister who was upset when not supported in power, so deserted Louis
  • Louis—horrible death from gangrene, but no children
  • Ancien regime king who insisted on appointment of officials, municipal leaders
charles x
Charles X
  • Another nephew of Louis XVI, brother to Louis XVIII
  • Contrasting life to Louis
    • Dissolute, unfaithful to wife; favorite mistress sister to Marie Antoinette’s friend
    • She died in London, made him promise to reform and find God, so influenced by confessor, whom he made cardinal
  • Liberal at first (restored some press freedom), but
    • Granted indemnities to emigres deprived of property 1792
    • Declared primogeniture (opposed by peers—favored oldest sons)
    • Wave of anticlericalism, so suppressed press again
    • Appointed royalist, absolutist deputies
  • National Guard demonstrations against him: Charles disbanded the guard
  • Revolution of 1830: Address of 221 a petition from the legislature that said the king had to have support of the populace to put his policies into effect; he didn’t have it
    • King dissolved chamber for new elections, so his ministers resigned
    • 202 of the 221 reelected: 270 liberals vs 150 royalists in legislature
  • 4 Ordinances King’s answer/retaliation
    • Suppressed freedom of press
    • Dissolved new chamber illegally (hadn’t met yet)
    • Restricted vote even further
    • Set elections for September 1830
1830 revolution july uprising
1830 Revolution, July Uprising

Uprising in Paris: 3 days of rioting and barricades; most of deputies (legislators) and some of army sided with the people (think Les Miserables and painting “Liberty Leading the People)

King abdicated and went to London in exile

louis philippe july monarchy
Louis Philippe: July monarchy
  • Liberal: father (descendant of one of sons of Louis XIV) voted for death of cousin Louis XVI
    • Duke of Orleans; Career in army
    • Supported Dumoriez in war vs Austria during Revolution
    • When Dumoriez deserted to Austria, he escaped to Switzerland
    • Exiled: traveled until Charles X restored him (not Louis—afraid of his popularity)
  • Abdication of Charles X: Louis Philippe more or less elected king, constitutional monarch
    • Because of his liberal politics, he was asked to be king
At first, liberal: more electorate, less strict press censorship, no state religion, bourgeoise ministers,
  • BUT took National Guard command from LaFayette (though he was the one who insisted Louis Philippe become king)
  • Success in foreign policy
    • More of revolutions of 1830: Begium revolted vs Holland, offered monarchy to his son; Louis Philippe refused. Talleyrand negotiated “perpetual neutrality” of Belgium, Louis’s dau married king Leopold of Saxe Coberg (widower of dau of king of England)
  • Social unrest
    • Increasing industrialization meant horrible working and living conditions in cities for laborers
    • Peasant riots: sacked archbishop’s palace
    • Revolts in So France encouraged by Napoleon’s nephew, Louis Napoleon
    • Rebellion by Blanqui (anarchist) took Hotel de Ville
guizot s conservative position
Guizot’s Conservative Position
  • I am, for my part, a decided enemy of universal suffrage. I look upon it as the ruin of democracy and liberty. If I needed proof I would have it under my very eyes; I will not elucidate. However, I should permit myself to say, with all the respect I have for a great country and a great government, that the inner danger, the social danger by which the United States appears menaced is due especially to universal suffrage; it is that which makes them run the risk of seeing their real liberties, the liberties of everybody, compromised, as well as the inner order of their society. . Guizot
  • Chief minister under Louis Philippe: intellectual, critic, moderate
    • Liberal until after Napoleon’s fall
    • Supported constitutional monarchy: opposed Louis XVIII policies of absolutism and oppression
    • 1821 moderate political party: riots made him look conservative because wanted constitutional monarchy
    • 1830 rewarded for support of monarchy with jobs in government; worked way up to chief minister, but by then, politics had moved to the left, making him look very conservative
    • Revolution of 1848: sided with king, so although he’d already resigned, in real trouble—escaped to England, but didn’t stay long
    • Continued as literary figure, social critic
Absolutist monarch to end unrest because tired of wrangling
  • Guizot dissolved constitution
  • More foreign relations
    • Algeria conquered and pacified
    • Anglo French friendship: Entente Cordiale
    • Son of Louis Philippe m daughter of Spanish princess vs Brit wishes
    • So turned to Austria for support; people upset because still traditional hatred
  • Revolution of 1848
    • Started with poor harvests of 1846-47: bread prices up, so violent demonstrations
      • liberal agitators supported by humanitarian landlords, ’progressive’ clergymen, among professional men and the urban population.
      • King made an authoritarian speech, plus parliament agitating vs Guizot: after demonstrations, Guizot resigned
    • Put head of rebellion, Thiers, in as minister to pacify opposition, but though tried reforms, too little, too late
  • Forced abdication of last real king of France
after the revolution of 1848 2 nd republic
After the Revolution of 1848: 2nd Republic
  • 13 governments in 18 years
  • Caretaker government: Radicals dominated at first, then quickly lost power (only one worker among governing)
    • Divisions in Revolutionary ranks:
    • constituent assembly (elected by universal male suffrage), comprised moderate liberals
    • People of Paris voted only 34 radical members.
  • Support for radical policies continued strong among the laboring and poor.
    • On May 15, revolutionaries led by radicals François Raspail and Louis Blanqui attempted forcibly to take control of the constituent assembly.
    • demanded intensification of the revolution
    • called on the people of France to launch an offensive revolutionary war throughout Europe to liberate all peoples still under monarchy
    • moderate liberals easily retook control of the constituent assembly from the radical firebrands.
2 nd republic continued
2nd Republic, continued
  • Process of government:
    • April: Constituent Assembly elected by universal manhood suffrage: moderates
    • Constitution set elections for single chamber of legislature + president of republic
    • Louis Napoleon got enormous majority as President
  • Unrest continued
  • Louis and Assembly in conflict over policies
    • Assembly created jobs temporarily, then eliminated them=rioting brutally suppressed
      • Royalists saw chance to agitate for new king
      • Louis Napoleon denounced “helplessness” of conservative assembly unpopular in the country
      • His term over 1852, SO
  • Seized power 2 Dec 1851: 1852 pronounced 2nd Empire
    • In plebescite (like uncle) overwhelming vote favoring Louis Napoleon
2 nd empire louis napoleon becomes napoleon iii
2nd Empire: Louis Napoleon becomes Napoleon III
  • Relied on army to seize power
  • Purged Assembly and magistrates, university leaders, administrators in the government of all who didn’t support him
  • 1852 declared self emperor: ambition as 2nd Napoleon
  • “The Empire means peace.” Didn’t want expansion of uncle, nor war
  • Social minded: wanted good, but his way
louis napoleon policies and politics
Louis Napoleon: policies and politics
  • Positive:
    • Time of amazing economic expansion
      • Railroads 2,000 mi in 1800: 12,000 mi in 1870
      • Machine tools, steam power dominate
      • Increase of public works, business and agriculture prosper (for rich)
    • Tried hard to better condition of workers and peasants: granted right to strike, form unions
    • Tried later to liberalize regime, giving gradually more power to assembly, making ministers accountable to assembly, not him
  • Negative
    • More, stronger opposition from Catholics and industrialists who didn’t like workers’ increasing strikes
    • Lost 1 million votes in election 1869
foreign affairs
Foreign Affairs
  • Crimean War: sided with Britain against Russia to shore up Ottoman Turks; Congress of Paris ended
  • Supported Cavour vs Austria (rewarded with Nice and Savoy)
  • Worldwide expansion into China, Indo China, Algeria
  • Mexico: put Habsburg Maximilian on “throne” of Mexico; didn’t work—executed
franco prussian war
Franco Prussian War
  • Bismarck manipulates the war:
    • Hohenzollern was candidate for Spanish throne
    • The French issued an ultimatum to Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia to withdraw candidate: he did.
    • Further aiming to humiliate Prussia, Napoleon III then required Wilhelm to renounce any possible further Hohenzollern candidature to the Spanish throne. King Wilhelm refused.
    • Bismarck phrased the king's refusal in the famous Ems Telegram, basically a propagandized account of the negotiations between France and Prussia making Prussia and Wilhelm look patriotic, leaking the document to the press.
    • Outraged, the French declared war on Prussia.
  • Over a six-month campaign, the German armies defeated the French in a series of battles fought across northern France.
    • Napoleon III went to aid of beleaguered armies
    • After a decisive defeat, Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan,
    • Prussians to gates of Paris, shelling the city: 6 month siege
  • Treaty of Frankfurt (with 3rd Republic):
    • France lost Alsace / Lorraine, had to pay 5 billion franc war indemnity
3 rd republic and commune 1870
3rd Republic and Commune: 1870
  • Taking advantage of the defeat, Thiers proclaims a conservative government with the Assembly backing him, BUT
  • Working people demand fruits of revolution so long denied them
    • Specific demand of people: Paris should be self-governing, with own elected Commune, (as most French towns),
    • Government didn’t want, because demonstrations and violence of masses of Paris
    • .An associated but more vague wish was for a fairerway of managing the economy, summed up in the popular cry for "La Sociale!"
  • During the siege of Paris by Prussian army
    • many tens of thousands of Parisians were armed members of a citizens' militia known as the “National Guard", greatly expanded to help defend the city.
    • Battalions in the poorer districts elected own officers and possessed many cannons manufactured in Paris and paid for by public subscription.
    • The city with National Guard had withstood the Prussian troops for six months.
  • To end siege, Thiers government allowed Prussian occupation of Paris: people outraged, limited Prussians to tiny portion of city; Thiers worried about possible uprising
  • National Guards, helped by ordinary working people, took cannons (which they regarded as theirs) away from the Prussians' areas to "safe" districts.
the commune march may 1871
The Commune (March-May 1871)
  • Central Committee of the National Guard became increasingly radical and gained in power,
  • Thiers’ government could not indefinitely allow it to have four hundred cannons.
    • Thiers ordered regular troops to seize the cannons on Montemartre
    • The soldiers, morale low, mixed with National Guards and locals
    • General Lecomte ordered them to fire on an unarmed crowd they dragged him from his horse. He was later shot, together with General Thomas, a hated former commander of the Guard picked up by a mob.
    • Other military units joined uprising
  • The government flees:
    • President Thiers ordered an immediate evacuation of Paris by as many of the regular forces as would obey; by the police; and by administrators and specialists of every kind. He fled to Versailles
    • Thiers thought about this strategy ("retreat from Paris to crush the people afterward.”) since 1848
  • Organization of the Commune
    • Central Committee of the National Guard, only effective government in Paris, almost immediately abdicated authority and arranged elections for a Commune
    • The 92 members of the Commune ("Communal Council") included skilled workers, several "professionals" (such as doctors and journalists), political activists, from reformist republicans, t various socialists, to Jacobins
    • Although the Paris Commune is considered a milestone in the organization of feminism, with some (women actively participated to the events), they still did not acquire right to vote, no female members of the Council.
what it did
What it did
  • Only in power 60 days, so not much
  • Put Blanqui (anarchist) as head, but he was in prison during whole time
  • Passed the following to help the people
    • the remission of rents for the entire period of the siege (during which they had been raised considerably by many landlords);
    • the abolition of night work in the hundreds of Paris bakeries;
    • the abolition of the guillotine
    • granting of pensions to unmarried companions of National Guards killed on active service and children, if any;
    • the free return, by the state pawnshops, of all workmen's tools pledged during the siege (concerned that skilled workers were forced to pawn r tools during the war)
    • postponement of debt obligations, abolition of interest on the debts;
    • right of employees to take over and run an enterprise if deserted by its owner.
    • Separated church and state: made all church property state property and excluded religion from schools.
      • churches were only allowed to continue their religious activity if they kept their doors open to public political meetings during the evenings.
  • The Paris Commune has been celebrated by anarchist and Marxist socialists continuously until the present day,
    • high degree of workers' control
    • remarkable cooperation among different revolutionists.
    • Engels identified Commune as “dictatorship of proletariat”
      • absence of a standing army,
      • the self-policing of the "quartiers",
      • no longer a "state" in the old, repressive sense.
end of the commune
End of the Commune
  • Constant attack from Versailles army
  • Commune forms “committee of public safety” = people afraid to take authority
  • Though much verbal support from international radicals, no real help
  • Strength becomes weakness: army obeys central command; commune meant independence of each area of city; had to defend selves separately
  • Let into gates of richer area of city, army took one area at a time
    • Many atrocities and killings by army
    • Commune took 50 hostages (many priests) and killed them
    • Once the army took the city, reprisals: Communards were shot against Communards’ Wall in a cemetery, thousands of others marched to Versailles for trials; few escaped
    • 30,000 dead, many more wounded, and perhaps as many as 50,000 later executed or imprisoned; 7,000 were exiled to uninhabited islands
    • Martial law for 5 years in Paris
3 rd republic
3rd Republic
  • Tried to reestablish monarchy with gson of Charles X, but he refused.
  • New constitution:
    • 7 year President; could dissolve chamber
    • Assemblies: lawmaking and budget
      • Chamber of Deputies 4 years elected by universal manhood suffrage
      • Senate –9 year terms; 1/3 elected every 3 years by limited suffrage
      • Council of State (President is president) determines constitutionality of laws
  • Republicans divided
    • Opportunists: want gradual reform
    • Radicals: want immediate reform
Succession of Presidents
    • Many only serve a few months
    • Jules Ferry: serves several years and makes social reform
      • Freedom of assembly for workers, unions’
      • Liberal freedom of the press
      • Reorganization of departments and cantons
      • Compulsory state primary education
      • Secondary education open to girls
  • Colonial Expansion
    • Tunisia (1881)
    • French Western Africa (Sudan + Dahomey)
    • Madagascar
    • Congo—French Equatorial Africa
    • Indochina
    • (Panama, for awhile—scandal and failure)
dreyfus affair
Dreyfus Affair
  • Young Jewish officer accused of treason 1894
    • Incriminating letters to German attache in handwriting that looked like his
    • Catholic and royalists and other conservatives tried to make big issue of “Jewish plot” and weakness of Republic to defend vs
    • Though scant evidence, not allowed to see evidence vs him, judged guilty, sentenced to life exile on Devil’s island
  • Another officer, Georges Picquart, questioned his guilt
    • Found evidence to prove guilty officer Walsin Esterhazy, BUT
    • Army couldn’t admit failure; more interested in image than justice
    • Transferred Picquart to Tunisia
  • International eye on French army because of Zola’s J’Accuse
    • Zola found guilty of libeling army, sentenced to prison
    • Fled to England, where continued to rally defenders
    • In answer, Catholics and Conservatives claimed conspiracy of Jews and Masons to damage reputation of army, destroy France
  • Re court martial 1899: found guilty again, sentenced to 10 years detention
    • Another officer found additional documents forged to strengthen case vs Dreyfus (identified forger, who committed suicide).
    • President of France pardoned him; not exonerated, however, until 1906.
  • Consequences: opposite of what Catholics and conservatives intended
    • Jaurez (President) support of anticlericalism: total separation of church and state
    • Closed monasteries and convents, seized property
    • Forbid church primary and secondary schools
    • Broke off diplomatic relations with Vatican
england less volatile more stable in an era of change
England: less volatile, more stable in an era of change
  • Stable constitutional monarchy under Georges and William
  • Victorian Era: long time queen – 64 year reign
    • “Sun never sets….” Empire
    • Middle class values dominate
    • Lower classes pay: rebellions that reflect the tenor of times in Europe
    • 2 party system: Tories, then Whigs, then Tories
      • Gladstone vs Disraeli—liberal desire for reform vs conservative push to keep status quo
    • reforms to benefit all
why reform was needed
Why Reform was needed:
  • Political abuses
    • “rotten boroughs”
    • “pocket boroughs”
    • Disenfranchisement of industrial cities
    • Tiny, aristocratic electorate
    • Established Church of privilege, not service
  • Social abuses
    • Laissez faire economics: middle class enriching selves on the backs of the poor
    • Ag and Industrial revolution: movement to cities
      • Horrible living conditions, no social safety net
      • Secularization of society: church not providing welfare, nor state, either
      • Child labor, lack of education
      • No political rights
england reaction to french revolution
England: Reaction to French Revolution
  • Conservatism/ Reactionary: go back to “good old days”
    • Combination Acts: outlaw workers organizations and unions
    • Corn Laws 1815 to keep profits of landowners high (as prices had been during Napoleonic wars): starvation for poor
    • 1816 abolished income tax (paid by rich) and substituted excise tax (on consumer goods—paid by everybody)
    • Many called for abolition of Poor Laws (public relief for destitute)
    • Liberals pushed for reform vs “rotten” boroughs, pocket boroughs, restrictions on voting and holding office; curbs on House of Lords
  • Selection of Duke of Wellington as very conservative PM
    • He blocked 224 reform bills in commons
    • So extreme lost own party support
peterloo massacre
Peterloo Massacre
  • Leading radicals in Manchester (North industrialized, so for reform) formed the Manchester Patriotic Union to obtain parliamentary reform
  • They invited sympathetic speakers to an outdoor meeting for all in St. Peter’s Field, 16 Aug 1819
  • Local leaders worried that such a gathering of reformers might end in a riot.
  • They decided to arrange for a large number of soldiers to be in Manchester on the day of the meeting.
    • four squadrons of cavalry of the 15th Hussars (600 men),
    • several hundred infantrymen,
    • the Cheshire Yeomanry Cavalry (400 men),
    • a detachment of the Royal Horse Artillery and two six-pounder guns and
    • the Manchester and Salford Yeomanry (120 men)
    • all Manchester's special constables (400 men).
At least 50,000 people gathered by midday.
  • The Boroughreeve and the special constables tried to clear a path through the crowd.
    • The 400 special constables were ordered to form two continuous lines between where the speeches were to take place, and Mr. Buxton's house where the magistrates were staying.
  • At 1.30 p.m. the magistrates came to the conclusion that "the town was in great danger".
    • They decided to arrest Henry Hunt (speaker) and the other leaders of the demonstration and asked for military help to do it.
  • Trouble:
    • As the officials moved closer to the speech area, members of the crowd began to link arms to stop them from arresting the leaders.
    • Others attempted to close the pathway created by the special constables.
    • Some of the soldiers now began to use their sabres to cut their way through the crowd.
  • Officials arrested the speakers and the organisers of the meeting, as well as the newspaper reporters at the speakers’ area.
  • The military commander reported to a town official at 1.50 p.m. When he asked Hulton what was happening, he replied: "Good God, Sir, don't you see they are attacking the Yeomanry? Disperse them."
  • By 2.00 p.m. the soldiers had cleared most of the crowd from St. Peter's Field. In the process, eleven people were killed and about 400, including 100 women, were wounded.
Reformers in Manchester were appalled by the decisions of the magistrates and the behavior of the soldiers and wrote accounts of what they had witnessed.
    • When one of them discovered that a reporter from the London Times had been arrested and imprisoned, he feared that this was an attempt by the government to suppress news of the event.
    • He sent his report to the editor of The Times. The article that was highly critical of the magistrates and the yeomanry was published two days later.
    • Dubbed ”Peteloo” as a contemptuous reference to Waterloo
  • After the Peterloo Massacre the Home Secretary sent a letter of congratulations to the Manchester magistrates for the action they had taken.
  • Parliament also passed the Six Acts in an attempt to make sure reform meetings like the one at St. Peter's Field did not happened again.
the six acts
The Six Acts
  • Forbade unauthorized public meetings
  • Specified fines for seditious libel
  • Required speedy trials for political organizers
  • Allowed oppressive measures vs “mobs”
  • Prohibited training armed groups
  • Officials could search homes of agitators in certain counties
historical sketches and personal recollections of manchester 1851 archibald prentice
Historical Sketches and Personal Recollections of Manchester (1851) Archibald Prentice

“There were haggard-looking men certainly, but the majority were young persons, in their best Sunday's suits, and the light coloured dresses of the cheerful tidy-looking women relieved the effect of the dark fustians worn by the men. The " marching order," of which so much was said afterwards, was what we often see now in the processions of Sunday-school children and temperance societies. To our eyes the numerous flags seemed to have been brought to add to the picturesque effect of the pageant. Slowly and orderly the multitudes took their places round the hustings, which stood on a spot now included under the roof of the Free Trade Hall, near its south-east corner.

Our company laughed at the fears of the magistrates, and the remark was, that if the men intended mischief they would not have brought their wives, their sisters, or their children with them. I passed round the outskirts of the meeting, and mingled with the groups that stood chatting there. I occasionally asked the women if they were not afraid to be there, and the usual laughing reply was - " What have we to be afraid of?“

I saw Hunt arrive, and heard the shouts of the sixty thousand persons by whom he was enthusiastically welcomed, as the carriage in which he stood made its way through the dense crowd to the hustings. I proceeded to my dwelling-house in Salford, intending to return in about an hour or so to witness in what manner so large a meeting would separate.

I had not been at home more than a quarter of an hour when a wailing sound was heard from the main street, and, rushing out, I saw people running in the direction of Pendleton, their faces pale as death, and some with blood trickling down their cheeks. It was with difficulty I could get any one to stop and tell me what had happened. The unarmed multitude, men, women, and children, had been attacked with murderous results by the military.

england series of reform acts
England: Series of Reform Acts:
  • Great Reform Act of 1832: passed Commons, rejected in Peers, so George IV made new peers, enough to enact it.
    • Problem it addressed=inequality of representation in Commons
      • Representation by counties (2 each in England, 1 each in Wales, Scotland, Ireland) supposed to represent landowners;
      • Representation elected by boroughs standing for merchant/artisans, but rotten” boroughs (little population because of Industrial Revolution redistribution of population); populous cities poorly represented; “pocket” boroughs: one aristocrat pretty much appointed the MP
    • Increased suffrage by 50-80%; one in six could vote
    • Redistributed seats in Parliament to eliminate “rotten boroughs,” enfranchise cities;
    • Reduced property restriction on eligibility for office; kept gender inequity
  • Chartist movement: coalition of workers, political activists and reformers
    • Wanted universal manhood suffrage, secret ballot, salaries for MP’s (so non rich could run)
    • Presented Great Charter (petition) of 1839 with 2 million names, petition of grievances, demand for reform; ignored until revolution threatened
  • 2nd Reform Act
    • Reduced voting qualifications: upped electorate by 2 million
  • 1884 Reform Act
    • Universal manhood suffrage (but not women)
reforms continued
Reforms (continued)
  • Poor Laws of 1834: to take care of old, infirm, unable to work by means of Work Houses, where very poor had to live, with harsh conditions (to motivate them to get OUT), overseen by Guardians chosen from mid/upper classes to collect taxes to support, get employment, oversee conditions, food, etc.
  • Catholic Emancipation Act
    • Afraid of Ireland as basis of Catholic/French alliance against Britain: Act of Union 1800=Ireland and England one country, but most couldn’t serve in office, because Catholic; 1829 lifted much of restrictions against Catholics in office in all Britain.
  • Women’s Suffrage movement: wanted the VOTE
    • 1872: Emeline Pankhurst and the suffragettes had marginal success
      • Women voted, held office in local governments, school boards, on poor house committees, as health authorities from the late nineteenth century. Successful, so…
    • 1918 (after WWI hiatus), franchise to women over the age of 30 in 1918; but only if householders, married to a householder or had a university degree.
    • 1928: universal suffrage for all adults over 21 years of age
queen victoria
Queen Victoria
  • Dau of 4th son of George III (first three died without children; her father died when she was young; struggle with mom and Irish duke to usurp her power
  • Became queen at 18 in 1837
    • As a girl, she was dominated by her German mother and her mother’s advisor, Irishman John Conroy. They isolated her from her more liberal (especially morally) English relatives (especially her two uncle kings, George IV and William IV), and any kind of friends.
    • They tried to get her to sign a paper naming them regents when she came to power. She refused.
    • As soon as she became queen, she banished her mother to a far wing of her residence and refused to see Conroy again.
  • In early part of her reign, influenced by her first Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, and her husband, Prince Albert, whom she married in 1840
    • Both men taught her much about how to be a ruler in a “constitutional monarchy” where the monarch had very few powers, but much influence.
    • Madly in love with her husband, she had 9 children, who married into most of the royal families of the great powers, including Prussia, Russia, etc.

Because of her repeated pregnancies and childbirths, she gradually (reluctantly) relinquished power to her husband, who in the German/British tradition, expected to take over power from his wife, a mere woman.

    • This conflict created a continuing tension between Albert and Victoria, especially when she made decisions independently
    • Albert, a German foreigner, was never accepted totally; his influence in foreign affairs was particularly distrusted
    • The Exhibition of 1851 (showing off the world’s best technological marvels) (Crystal Palace) was his baby
  • The Victorian Age: in contrast to her two uncles, with influence of Albert, the monarch and her family life became a pattern of “middle class morality”
  • When Albert died, Victoria became a recluse, staying in mourning (only wearing black)
    • (became Mrs. Brown?)
    • Development of strong liberal movements
  • In 1870’s, (Disraeli’s influence), resumed public duties
    • Idea of Constitutional monarch above politics evolved, though she often took a stand(conservative)
    • Actually mediated between Commons and Lords during Disestablishment controversy which ended in the Irish Church Disestablishment Act of 1869 and the 1884 Reform Act.
victorian prime ministers disraeli
Victorian Prime Ministers: Disraeli
  • Jewish, upper middle class family; married very rich (but loved)
  • Conservative Tory party—believed that aristocrats and poor should be allies; rich use their resources to help the poor
  • As PM, many reform bills to help, including Food and Drug, Health reforms
  • Imperialist; wanted British superiority; made Victoria “Empress of India”
  • Because of his views, Victoria liked him.
victorian prime ministers gladstone
Victorian Prime Ministers-Gladstone
  • Aristocratic family, married to an aristocrat
  • Liberal party leader/PM; Victoria didn’t like him.
  • Championed universal suffrage, relief for poor, Home Rule for Ireland
  • Many reform bills passed with his support.
  • Competitor to Disraeli: mutual dislike.
russia enlightenment to reactionary
Russia: Enlightenment to Reactionary
  • Alexander I
    • Enlightened, granted more freedom to press, looked at liberating the serfs
    • One of powers supporting Congress of Vienna, concert system
    • Conflict between support for “confederation of Europe,” role as defender of the Orthodox Church against the Ottoman Turks
    • Metternich’s cynical manipulations, supported the Greeks vs the Ottoman Turks, not Concert system he helped to design, disillusioned Alexander
    • Alexander provoked war with Turkey: Crimean War
    • Became mystic, paranoid after kidnap attempt: went to S. Russia for wife’s health, got typhus and died: rumors he became a monk
crimean war
Crimean War
  • Russ struggling for control of Black Sea, port to Dardanelles into Medit Sea
  • 1823: Brit and France joined Russ in supporting Greek independence against Turkey to keep Russ from getting territory and influence
  • Russ war vs Turkey 1929-1833: Balkan “protectorate of Russ” changed to “protectorate of Europe” by concert
  • July 1853: Russ seized Turkish territories (pretext: protecting Christians there vs Muslims); France and Britain (+ Sardinia = Italy) support Turkey, drive Russia out
    • France willing to go to war because Napoleon III needed victory to restore his prestige at home—called on Britain to honor treaty obligations; Victoria and govt vs, but people whipped into patriotic fervor
  • United powers vs Russ decide to settle Crimea once and for all, land on Crimean peninsula and attack Sevastopol
  • Horrible 18 month war: useless carnage, but stopped Russia in Balkans
    • Charge of the light brigade: points out problem of aristocratic command of army
    • Florence Nightingale: pointed up terrible medical care, corruption in war suppliers; she became a heroine to troops, but less success in carrying out reforms in England itself
    • Fighting on Crimea, blockade and attack on Russian Baltic ports crippled Russ economy
    • Treaty of Paris: Russ fleet out of Black Sea, Russ out of Baltics
    • War put end to Concert System: paved way for Germany and Italy
Alexander succeeded by Nicholas I (brother) 1825
    • Alexander assassinated brutally
    • Nicholas opposite from their father: wanted all power, autocratic
    • Brutally put down revolts and leaders
  • Polish Revolution part of 1830 wave, brutally repressed
  • Later Polish Revolution (1863-4)
leadup to wwi russian revolution
Leadup to WWI, Russian Revolution:
  • Alexander II (R 1855-81) and the Emancipation Edict 1861
    • Son of Nicholas I, tried to modernize the country
    • Emancipated serfs, but had no way to integrate them into society, economy without much suffering
    • At first allowed liberal self government of Poles, then when rebelled, clamped down violently
    • Tried to expand Russian territory at the expense of Turks, Chinese
    • About to grant a liberal constitution when assassinated by “people’s party” assassin
  • Alexander III (R 1881-94)
    • Reactionary autocrat who reigned so strictly, that Russia was stablilized and capitalism and the industrial revolution could take root there
    • Kept Russia out of European wars
meanwhile in the german speaking countries
Meanwhile, in the German speaking countries….
  • Congress of Vienna set up the German Confederation to replace Napoleon’s Confederation of the Rhine
    • Roughly same as the old HRE, except down to 36 states from 300
    • Each an independent entity, united mainly for “common defense,” with Diet as legislature in Frankfurt
    • Emperor of Austria served as executive, but only represented on Diet
  • Through a series of well picked conflicts with neighboring states, Bismarck was able to guide Prussia into absorbing the rest of what is now Germany
german unification 1848 1871
German Unification 1848-1871
  • Steps
    • German Confederation with Austria ruling, Prussia separate, but strong
      • Zollverein: German trade confederation (1834-) to which all German speaking states except for Austria and some states in the Northwest (Hanover, among others) belonged:
        • lifted trade barriers between the states, setting standard taxes, weights and measurements, and currency
        • . Bismarck used this organization, which had no central bureaucracy or public presence for liberals to attack in 1848-9 revolutions, to push Prussian trade policies onto the other states, get them ready for unification
      • Bismarck maneuvered first Denmark, then Austria into war and absorbed Schleswig and Holstein (from Denmark) Southern German territories he “wins” from Austria, along with some territories part of the German Confederation that allied with him to help with the war
    • North German Confederation
    • German Empire

Heroes of German unification

    • Otto von Bismarck--diplomatic genius
    • Helmut von Moltke--military genius
    • Frederick Wilhelm IV—military, not very bright married to Victoria (Victoria’s oldest)
  • Opposition
    • Junkers: The Prussian aristocracy
    • Austria
    • Everyone else in the old HRE
    • Everyone else in Europe
helmuth von moltke
Helmuth von Moltke
  • Chief of Staff of Prussian Army, 1857-1878
  • Military Genius
    • Planned for Aggression
      • Built Efficient Army
        • Newer rear loading “rifles”
      • Modernized Nation for War
        • Saw the importance of rail transport in military mobilization
        • Used telegraph to communicate with military
    • Genius at Tactics
      • Divide and Conquer
      • “Blitzkrieg” attacks
      • Central Command to coordinate
        • Almost foiled by Kaiser’s relatives in command of some of armies
      • Take advantage of enemy weakness
otto von bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
  • Prime Minister of Prussia 1862-1871
  • Imperial German Chancellor 1871-1890
  • Personality:
    • Realpolitik
    • “Blood and Iron”
    • “The Iron Chancellor
vintage bismarck
Vintage Bismarck:
  • The less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they’ll sleep at night.
  • Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied.
  • The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions—that was the mistake of 1848-1849—but byblood and iron.
  • I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made.
  • A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one.
  • Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans will provoke the next war.
revolution of 1848 in germany the march revolution
Revolution of 1848 in Germany (the March Revolution)

In the south and the west of Germany, large popular assemblies and mass demonstrations took place. They primarily demanded freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, arming of the people, and a national German parliament

2 main issues of controversy

  • liberal constitutionalism
  • German unification
frankfurt parliament may 48 mar 49
Frankfurt Parliament: May ’48-Mar.’49
  • Drew up moderate liberal constitution for a united Germany
  • Too liberal for the conservatives, too conservative for radicals
  • Disagreed on the issue of unification
    • (grossdeutsch with Austria vs. kleindeutsch without Austria)
  • Frederick Wilhelm IV of Prussia refused the crown offered him by the Parliament
step one danish war
Arose over Duchies of Schleswig & Holstein

Belonged to Denmark but majority of pop. German

Prussia & Austria declare war on Denmark, 1864

Step one: Danish War
step 2 austro prussian war 7 weeks war
Step 2: Austro-Prussian war(7 weeks’ War)
  • Bismarck promised Venetia to Italy in exchange for alliance
  • 1866 Austria defeated by Prussia at Battle of Sadowa
  • Peace of Prague, 1866
bismarck at the helm
Creation of the Northern German Confederation, 1867

Shortly following the victory of Prussia, Bismarck eliminated the Austrian ledGerman Confederation.

He then established a new North German Confederation which Prussia couldcontrol  Peace of Prague

Bismarck at the helm:
franco prussian war 1870 71
Franco-Prussian War 1870/71
  • Prussia wants war
    • Payback for what Prussia lost at the Congress of Vienna
    • Blatant grab for territory at expense of weakened France
    • BUT Bismarck knows he must act quickly, or other nations will join France to stop Prussia
  • Pretense for War: Bismarck finds a cause
    • Hohenzollern Candidacy for the Spanish throne
      • 1868 revolt in Spain.
      • Spanish leaders wanted Prince Leopold von Hohenz.[a cousin to the Kaiser & a Catholic], as their new king.
    • France protested & his name was withdrawn.
ems dispatch catalyst for war
Ems Dispatch: Catalyst for War
  • The Fr. Ambassador asked the Kaiser at Ems to apologize to Nap. III for supporting Leopold.
  • Bismarck “doctored” the telegram from Wilhelm to the French Ambassador to make it seem as though the Kaiser had insulted Napoleon III.
Prussians invade France

Quickly defeat the French decisively

Propaganda much like what would be used later in WWI

Prussian soldier “abusing” French maiden

Prussian “barbarian” vs French knight

consequences of the war treaty of frankfurt 1871
Consequences of the WarTreaty of Frankfurt [1871]
  • The Second French Empire collapsed and was replaced by the Third French Republic.
  • The Italians took Rome and made it their capital.
  • Russia put warships in the Black Sea [in defiance of the 1856 Treaty of Paris that ended the Crimean War].
  • France paid a huge indemnity and was occupied by German troops until it was paid.
  • France ceded Alsace-Lorraine to Germany [a region rich in iron deposits with a flourishing textile industry].
wilhelm i
Wilhelm I
  • Succeeded Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia
  • Shared Bismarck’s goals for a united Germany dominated by Prussia
  • After Franco Prussian War, rest of German Confederation unites with Prussia to form Germany
  • Wilhelm crowned “kaiser” (from Caesar = emperor)
germany under bismarck kulturkampf anti catholic program
Germany under BismarckKulturkampf: Anti-Catholic Program
  • Take education and marriage out of the hands of the clergy  civil marriages only recognized.
  • The Jesuits are expelled from Germany.
  • The education of Catholic priests would be under the supervision of the German government.
  • Afterwards, Bismarck carefully approached the pope to appease the Church, called rapprochement of Bismarck with Pope Leo XIII
results bismarck s europe 1871 90
Results: Bismarck’s Europe1871-90
  • No more German expansion
  • German alliance with Austria
  • German alliance with Russia
  • Diplomatic isoIation of France
and what about italy
And what about Italy?
  • Congress of Vienna”
    • Territories belonging to Austrian (Habsburg) Empire restored
    • Kingdom of Sardinia
    • Papal territories restored
disunity to union
Disunity to Union
  • Makeup of Italy after Congress of Vienna
    • Lombardy and Venetia (Austrian territories)
    • Piedmont
    • Tuscany
    • Papal States
    • Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
    • “The Duchies” (Parma & Modena)
  • Unification of Italy and Germany two of the most significant examples of nationalism
  • Unification of Italy was not a product of a mass movement.
  • Majority wanted status quo
  • The minority that wanted unification couldn’t agree on how

Plans for Unification

  • Make Italy a confederation of states under Papal leadership
  • Make Italy a republic which meant expelling the Austrians (Giuseppi Mazzani)
  • Unification by way of Piedmont-Sardinia
      • Strong support for idea
      • The people had a constitution
three stages to italian unification
Three Stages to Italian Unification
  • The Revolutions of 1848
  • “The Decade of Preparation” 1849-59
  • Italian Unification 1859-1870
step one revolutions of 1848
Step ONE: Revolutions of 1848
  • Republics declared throughout Italy
  • Piedmont tries to annex Lombardy but defeated by Austrian army
  • Garibaldi’s defense of the Roman Republic

Italian Nationalist Leaders

King Victor Emmanuel II

Giuseppi Garibaldi[The “Sword”]

Giuseppi Mazzini[The “Heart”]

Count Cavour[The “Head”]

giuseppi mazzini the heart man of ideas
Giuseppi Mazzini (the heart: man of ideas)
  • Italian nationalist
  • Ardent republican
  • Theorist and organizer of Italian Unity
  • ("Young Italy") 1831
cavour the head genius of politics
Cavour (the head:genius of politics)
  • Background:
    • Younger son of a Sardinian noble family
    • Army officer
    • Resigned and took over family estate
    • Financier , industrialist, founder of Bank of Turin, shipping and railway construction promoter
    • Avid reader
  • Personality
    • Energetic, Hard worker with a good memory
    • Ambitious: self-confident and utterly ruthless
    • Did not delegate authority
"Father of Modern Italy“
    • 1847 founded The Resurgence a political journal (moderate liberalism)
    • Elected to the assembly 1848
    • 1850 elected minister of agriculture, industry, commerce and the Navy
    • 1851 minister of finance
  • The political & diplomatic genius of the Risorgimento
    • First concerned about Piedmont than with the Italian Question
      • Piedmont needed time to prepare
    • Cavour strengthen Piedmont’s economy
      • Reformed taxation system
      • Borrowed money to stimulate economy and build army
      • Sponsored construction of highways, railroads,harbors, and canals.
step two the decade of preparation 1849 59
Step Two: “The Decade of Preparation” 1849-59
  • 1852 : Cavour becomes Prime Minister of Piedmont
    • Italian liberals accept leadership of Piedmont in unification
    • If Piedmont was going to unify Italy, would have to fight Austria
      • Cavour turned toward France for assistance
    • Piedmont and Crimean War (1853-56)
      • First significant foreign policy move
      • Wanted Britain and France as allies
      • His contribution to the war allowed him to sit at the peace conference
      • Gave Cavour time to denounce Austria and plant seeds
plans begin to take effect when
Plans begin to take effect when:
  • 1858 Napolean III informed Cavour of his desire for an Alliance (Plombieres)
  • Conditions for French Help
    • War on Austria be undertaken for non-revolutionary ends
    • War could be justified
    • Acceptable European public opinion
    • Get Austria out of Italy
    • 4 state confederation (Pope)
    • Napoleon III’s cousin would control a state in ItalyNapoleon III would also get Piedmont’s provinces of Nice and Savoy
    • Discussed at Plombieres but not agreed upon until later
  • Cost of war would be paid for by the two northern states of Italy.
step 3 italian unification 1859 1870
Step 3: Italian Unification 1859-1870
  • Under leadership of Piedmont-Sardinia
  • Monarchy with Enlightened Victor Emmanuel II as king
war of 1859
War of 1859
  • Needed a provocation for war
    • Cavour enlisted Austrian deserters into the Sardinian army
    • Gave refuge to fugitives of Austrian rule
    • Encouraged revolt with Austria
    • 1859 mobilized its army\
    • Vienna sent ultimatum demanding demobilization
  • Piedmont was given three days to respond
    • Vienna had made a stupid move and moved too quickly
    • France was trying to get Piedmont to stand down, but Vienna pushed the issue
  • The end came quickly
    • Battle of Solferino (June 1859) combined French-Piedmont armies defeat Austria and drive her out of Lombardy, annexed by Piedmont
    • BUT Napoleon asked Francis Joseph for an armistice
war aborted cavour unhappy
War aborted, Cavour unhappy
  • Why did Napoleon end the war?
    • He realized he would not be able to control Italy as he had thought
    • The war was costly in blood and money
    • Feared French public opinion
    • Piedmont had exaggerated its ability to help in the war
  • Why did Austria want peace?
    • Financial situation grew worst
    • War increased the danger of national uprising in Austrian Empire
  • BUT—no Italy: Cavour Resigned
Peace of Villafranca
    • Austria gave up Lombardy to France
    • Austria retained Venetia
  • Italians were not happy with Villafranca
  • Some central Italian states ask to be annexed by Piedmont (Tuscany, Papal States)
  • Pressure from Britain forced Napoleon III to make peace with Piedmont
      • Asked King of Piedmont (Victor Emmanuel II) to reinstate Cavour
      • Cavour got central states and Napoleon III got Nice and Savoy
garibaldi the man of action
Garibaldi (the man of action)
  • Personality
    • a single-minded Italian patriot
    • Took action no matter how great the odds
    • Colorful and charismatic military leader
  • Importance
    • Supported emancipation of women, social reform, and universal suffrage
    • Military hero of Risorgimiento
    • Romantic cult figure of the 19th century
  • Early Adventures
    • Fell under the influence of Mazzini
    • Joined the Young Italy movement
    • Soldier of fortune in South America (12 yrs)
    • 1848 back in Italy
    • 1859 fought against the Austrians
garibaldi vs cavour italian unity
Garibaldi vs Cavour: Italian Unity?
  • Garibaldi began to assemble a corps of volunteers (“The Thousand”)
    • Cavour opposed Garibaldi, did nothing to help him
    • Cavour got Garibaldi to go to Sicily, landed May 11, 1860
    • Garibaldi proclaimed himself dictator of Sicily ( for Italy and Victor Emmanuel II)
  • Successes
    • Military successes against the regime: Garibaldi could not lose
    • Garibaldi’s movement grew with each success, so Cavour began to fear Garibaldi’s popularity and possible plans
  • Garibaldi gained firm control of southern Italy
To counter him, Cavour moved toward the Papal States
    • Cavour demanded Pope demobilize his troops, but the Pope rejected Cavour‘s ultimatum
    • Piedmont forces crossed over into Papal States, fought and defeated the Papal army
  • French denounced Cavour’s actions
  • Cavour moved with his forces on to Naples toward Garibaldi’s base of power
    • Oct 15, 1860 Garibaldi signed decree proclaiming all his conquests would become part of Italy under the constitutional monarchy of Victor Emanuel II
  • 1861 the kingdom of Italy was proclaimed with Victor Emannuel II as King

Pope Pius IX

solving the rivalry unification
Solving the Rivalry: unification
  • Cavour moved with his forces on to Naples toward Garibaldi’s base of power
    • Oct 15, 1860 Garibaldi signed decree proclaiming all his conquests would become part of Italy under the constitutional monarchy of Victor Emanuel II
  • 1861 the kingdom of Italy was proclaimed with Victor Emannuel II as King
  • However, the rivalry continued
    • Cavour gave no civil or military position to Garibaldi after the war
    • Garibaldi retired to his home (die 1883)
    • Cavour died two months later
  • Rome and Venetia were still not part of Italy
    • Garibaldi tried to take Rome 1862, 1866, 1867 but failed
    • Eventually, Venice joined to Italy (as agreement ending Austro-Prussian war)
    • Rome joined Italy 1870: unification complete

German and Italian Unification

  • German States
    • Prussia: Greatest State
  • Dynamic Leaders
    • Bismarck: Like a Prime Minister. Runs the show
    • William I: King of Prussia
  • Italian States
    • Piedmont Sardinia: Greatest State
  • Dynamic Leaders:
    • Cavour: Like a Prime Minister, runs the show
    • Victor Emmanuel: King of Piedmont/Sardinia
    • Mazzini/Garibaldi- Both want a Republic, Cavour does not.

Garibaldi fitting the boot of Italy onto Victor Emmanuel II


German and Italian Unification

  • German States’ Issues:
    • Prussia seeks a common German State
    • Prussia will lead,others have to follow
    • Have to deal with liberals who do not want $ spent on the military
    • Austria, another German State, is nearly as strong as Prussia
  • Italian States’ Issues:
    • Have never been unified since the fall of Rome
    • Have separate Agendas
      • North = Industry
      • South = Agriculture
    • Have a strong foreign presence in their area
      • Austria
      • France

German and Italian Unification

  • German States: Agendas of the players--who wants what?
    • Bismarck – wants to increase the size of Prussia
    • If it means a unified Germany, so be it
    • He is a Prussian before he is a German
    • William (Wilhelm) I – willing to let Bismarck Run the show
  • Italian States: Agendas of the players--who wants what?
    • Cavour – feels that a strong, industrial Piedmont will lead the rest of the States. $ = Power = unification
    • Mazzini and Cavour want unification based on political ideology: A Republic
    • Victor Emmanuel - willing to let Cavour run the show

German and Italian Unification

  • German States: Obstacles to Unification
    • Austria- a powerful “German State” with a different agenda from Prussia
    • France: still controls land that used to belong to Prussia
    • Political Differences- between Bismarck and the wealthy classes (over $ for war)
    • German intellectuals—who hope for a more democratic republic
  • Italian States: Obstacles to Unification
    • Austria – controls/manages Piedmont
    • France –controls parts of the center of Italy
    • Political differences – Between Cavour, who has no problem having a King as long as Italy is unified, and Garibaldi, who wants Italy to be a Republic.

German and Italian Unification

  • German States Steps to Unification
  • Bismarck raises $ for the Military
  • Allies with Russia to take back Schleswig and Holstein
  • Provokes Austrians to war and crushes them in 7 Weeks
  • Provokes French and crushes them (revenge for Napoleon)
  • Establishes unified Germany in 1871
  • Italian States Steps to Unification
  • Sardinia provokes Austria into battle and beats them (with French help)
  • Garibaldi gathers his army “Red Shirts” in the south; they conquer and move north
  • Cavour links with Garibaldi,and France is finally is driven from Italy because it’s being beaten by Prussia

German and Italian Unification

  • Germany: Results of Unification
    • A strong, Industrialized and militarized Germany
    • Austria is “on its own”
    • Increased tension between France and Germany
    • The seeds of WWI
  • Italy: Results of Unification
    • Remaining division between North and South Italy
    • Political unity, but not cultural or social unity
    • Connection/identification between Italy and Germany makes them allies in WWI & WWII