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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR. Chapter 6 - 8 Motivation Emotions & Moods. What Is Motivation?. Motivation The process that accounts for an individual ‘s efforts towards any goal.

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organizational behavior


Chapter 6 - 8


Emotions & Moods

Chapter 6-8

what is motivation
What Is Motivation?
  • Motivation
  • The process that accounts for an individual ‘s efforts towards any goal.
  • The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
  • Key Elements
  • Intensity: How hard a person tries
  • Direction: Toward beneficial goal
  • Persistence: How long a person tries

Chapter 6-8


What Is Motivation?



Chapter 6-8

key motivational theories
Key Motivational Theories
  • McGregor Theory X and Y
  • Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
  • Hertzberg's Motivation – Hygine Theory
  • McClelland Need Achievement Theory
  • Vroom Expectancy Theory
  • Equity Theory

Chapter 6-8

application of motivational concepts
Application of Motivational Concepts
  • Job Design
  • Job Design & Scheduling
  • Alternative work arrangements

Chapter 6-8

job design theory
Job Design Theory
  • Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
  • Model proposes that any job can be defined in terms of five core job dimensions :
    • Skill variety
    • Task identity
    • Task significance
    • Autonomy
    • feedback

Chapter 6-8

job design theory1
Job Design Theory

Skill Variety

The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities (how may different skills are used in a given day, week, month?) (Meaningful)

Task Identity

The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work (from beginning to end) (Meaningful)

Task Significance

The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people (Meaningful)

Chapter 6-8

job design theory2
Job Design Theory


The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out (Responsible)


The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance (Knowledge)

Chapter 6-8

job design and scheduling
Job Design and Scheduling

Job Rotation ( cross-training)

The periodic shifting of a worker from one task to another

Job Enlargement

The horizontal expansion of jobs for individual

Job Enrichment

The vertical expansion of jobs increase the employee freedom

Chapter 6-8

alternative work arrangements
Alternative Work Arrangements


Employees work during a common core time period each day but have discretion in forming their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core.

Job Sharing

The practice of having two or more people split a 40-hour-a-week job

Chapter 6-8

example of a flextime schedule
Example of a Flextime Schedule

E X H I B I T 7–3

Chapter 6-8

alternative work arrangements1
Alternative Work Arrangements


Employees do their work at home on a computer that is linked to their office.

  • Categories of Telecommuting Jobs
  • Routine information-handling tasks
  • Mobile activities
  • Professional and other knowledge-related tasks

Chapter 6-8


Larger labor pool

Higher productivity

Less turnover

Improved morale

Reduced office-space costs

Disadvantages (Employer)

Less direct supervision of employees

Difficult to coordinate teamwork

Difficult to evaluate non-quantitative performance


Chapter 6-8

performance f a x m x o
Performance = f (A x M x O)

Source: Adapted from M. Blumberg and C.D. Pringle, “The Missing Opportunity in Organizational Research: Some Implications for a Theory of Work Performance,” Academy of Management Review, October 1982, p. 565.

E X H I B I T 6–9

Chapter 6-8

emotions why emotions were ignored in ob
Emotions—Why Emotions Were Ignored in OB
  • Emotions are critical factor in employee behavior.
  • The “myth of rationality”
  • Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations.
    • Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong negative emotions that interfered with individual and organizational efficiency.

Chapter 6-8

aspects of emotions
Aspects of Emotions
  • Biology of Emotions
    • Originate in brain’s limbic system
  • Intensity of Emotions
    • Personality
    • Job requirements
  • Frequency and Duration of Emotions
    • How often emotions are exhibited
    • How long emotions are displayed
  • Functions of Emotions
    • Critical for rational thinking
    • Motivate people

Chapter 6-8

mood as positive and negative affect
Mood as Positive and Negative Affect
  • Emotions could be classified as positive or negative
    • Positive affect : mood dimensions consisting of positive emotions such as excitement, self-assurance, and cheerfulness at the high end and boredom, sluggishness, and tiredness at the low end.
    • Negative Affect : mood dimensions consisting of nervousness, stress and anxiety at the high end, and relaxation, tranquility, and poise at the low end.

Chapter 6-8

sources of emotions and moods
Sources of Emotions and Moods
  • Personality
    • Affect intensity : individual differences in the strength with which individuals experience their emotions.
  • Day and Time of the Week
    • People are in their best moods on weekends.
  • Weather
    • Weather has little impact on mood
  • Stress
    • Stress affects emotions and moods negatively

Chapter 6-8

sources of emotions and moods1
Sources of Emotions and Moods
  • Social Activities
    • Social activities increase positive mood
  • Sleep
    • Sleep quality affects mood
  • Exercise
    • Exercise enhances people’s positive mood
  • Age
    • Emotional experience tends to improve with age

Chapter 6-8

gender and emotions
Gender and Emotions
  • Women
    • Can show greater emotional expression
    • Experience emotions more intensely
    • Display emotions more frequently
    • Are more comfortable in expressing emotions
    • Are better at reading others’ emotions
  • Men
    • Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with the male image
    • Are innately less able to read and to identify with others’ emotions
    • Have less need to seek social approval by showing positive emotions

Chapter 6-8

external constraints on emotions
External Constraints on Emotions




Chapter 6-8

emotional labor
Emotional Labor

A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.

Emotional dissonance—Inconsistencies between the emotions we feel and the emotions we project.

Chapter 6-8

felt vs displayed emotions
Felt vs. Displayed Emotions

Felt Emotions

An individual’s actual emotions

Displayed Emotions

Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job

Chapter 6-8

ob applications of emotions and moods
OB Applications of Emotions and Moods
  • Emotions and Selection
    • Emotions affect employee effectiveness.
  • Decision Making
    • Emotions are an important part of the decision-making process in organizations.
  • Creativity
    • Positive mood increases creativity.
  • Motivation
    • Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked.
  • Leadership
    • Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.

Chapter 6-8

ob applications
OB Applications
  • Interpersonal Conflict
    • Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are strongly intertwined.
  • Negotiation
    • Emotions can impair negotiations.
  • Customer Services
    • Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers which, in turn, affects customer relationships.
  • Job Attitudes
    • Can carry over to home
  • Deviant Workplace Behaviors
    • Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions that violate norms and threaten the organization).

Chapter 6-8