Liberia and Civil War By: Sudesh Kalyanswamy and Ross Carstens
Background • Two civil wars • First war from 1989-1995 • Second war from 1999-2003 • Period of fighting from 1980-2004
What does it stand for? • ECOWAS – Economic Community of West African States • NPFL – National Patriotic Front of Liberia Ecowas
Brief History Of Problem: Doe’s control • 1980 - Samuel Doe takes control of gov’t. • 1984 - Under pressure, Doe allows political parties to return • 1985 - Doe wins presidential Election U.S. says election characterized by fraud and rigging. Ethnic conflicts increase
Brief History cont: Charles Taylor’s Uprising • 1989 - NPFL, led by Taylor, begins revolt against gov’t. • 1990 - ECOWAS sends peacekeeping force Doe is caught and executed by NPFL. • 1991 - ECOWAS and NPFL agree to disarm and set up Interim Gov’t of National Unity • 1992- NPFL launches assault on peacekeeping troops in Monrovia
Brief History Cont: End 1st Civil War and 2nd Civil War • 1994 - Warring factions agree on timetable for disarmament and set up of joint Council of State • 1995 – Peace agreement signed • 1999 – Rebel forces come down from Guinea and attack town of Voinjama • 2000 - Liberian forces launch attack against rebels • 2001 - UN imposes arms embargo
Brief History: End 2nd Civil War • 2002 – Taylor declares state of Emergency • 2002- In Sept., Taylor lifts state of emergency • 2003- Fighting intensifies, rebels battle for control of Monrovia, the capital • Aug 2003- Nigerian Peacekeepers arrive. Taylor leaves handing power to his deputy Moses Blah. US troops arrive. • Sept/Oct 2003- UN launches peacekeeping mission
Other Countries’ Reactions • Many countries sent peacekeeping troops along with the UN troops. • Countries Included: Namibia, Ethiopia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Nepal, Jordan, and various Western Nations.
Results of Civil War • Over 50,000 people have been displaced from their homes • 220,000 people died in conflict
Leaders of Liberia Charles Taylor Doe, Samuel Bryant, Gyude Blah, Moses
Solution to Problem • A treaty was made last Wednesday renouncing Civil War and initiating disarmament.
Peace Treaty • The peace treaty is meant to be permanent. • Previous peace treaties have failed. • Ethnic groups probably still hold grudges against one another. • A western peace treaty may not stop war.
BIBLIOGRAPHY • http://www.un.org/securitycouncil • http://www.pbs.org • http://www.foreignaffairs.org • http://www.cnn.com • http://www.bbc.com/news • http://www.globalsecurity.org
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