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Modernization in Japan

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  1. Modernization in Japan

  2. I. Japan Ends its Isolation • Japan in isolation (early 17th cent. – mid 19th cent.) • “Closed Country Policy” • China & Dutch ONLY!! • Tokugawa Shogunate

  3. A. The Demand for Foreign Trade • Early 19th cent.: • Westerners knock at Japanese door • 1853: U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry • West Pacific Whaling • Tokyo Bay (4 modern steam-powered warships) • Delivered letter from President Millard Fillmore • Allow free trade (Perry threatened Shogun) • Treaty of Kanagawa (1854): • Japan opened two ports • 1860: others followed; extraterritorial rights to foreigners

  4. B. Meiji Reform & Modernization • Japanese upset by Shogun’s decision regarding the West • Turned to emperor (Mutsuhito) • 1867: Tokugawa Shogun stepped down • Ended military dictatorships (12th cent.) • Mutsuhito took control • Meiji: “enlightened rule” • Meiji Era: Lasted 45 years

  5. Meiji Emperor = MODERNIZE!! • Sent diplomats to Europe & N. America • Germany’s strong centralized govt. • German army • British navy • American public education • Industrialization • Railroad (1872) • Coal production rose • Factories (shipbuilding & other)

  6. II. Imperial Japan • 1890: Japan was strongest military power in Asia!! • Eliminated extraterritorial rights (1894) • Nationalism = Imperialism

  7. A. Japan Attacks China • Japan Attacks China • 1885: Japan & China signed “hands off agreement” concerning Korea • 1894: China broke agreement • Sino-Japanese War (Japan won) • Chinese driven out of Korea • Chinese Navy destroyed • Japan in Manchuria • 1895 Peace Treaty (gave Japan its first colonies) • Taiwan & Pescadores Islands

  8. B. Russo-Japanese War (1904 – 05) • Russia & Japan = MAJOR WORLD POWERS • Manchuria? • 1903: Russia refused to stay out of Korea • 1904: Japanese surprise attack • Russia driven out of Korea • 1905: Peace negotiations • Treaty of Portsmouth (New Hampshire) • Japan received Manchuria

  9. C. Japanese Occupation of Korea • 1905: Korea made a protectorate of Japan • 1910: Japan annexed Korea • Japanese were HARSH! • Korean newspapers? • Korean schools? • Korean farmers? • Japanese industries in Korea