Chapter 5: Biodiversity & Conservation . Biological Studies. 5.1 Biodiversity. Biodiversity maintains a healthy biosphere and provides direct and indirect value to humans. Biodiversity. The variety of life in an area determined by the number of different species in that area
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Chapter 5: Biodiversity & Conservation Biological Studies
5.1 Biodiversity Biodiversity maintains a healthy biosphere and provides direct and indirect value to humans.
Biodiversity • The variety of life in an area • determined by the number of different species in that area • Increases health and stability of biosphere • Extinction – when the last member of a species dies • Extinction causes a decrease in biodiversity, which decreases the health of the biosphere • Levels of Biodiversity: • Genetic • Species • Ecosystem
Levels of Biodiversity • Genetic Diversity - variety of genes or inheritable characteristics present in a population • increases the chances that some species will survive during changing environmental conditions • Species Diversity – number of different species and the abundance of each species in a biological community • Not evenly distributed over biosphere • Increases closer to the equator • Ecosystem Diversity – variety of ecosystems present in the biosphere
Importance of Biodiversity • A healthy biosphere provides services to humans and other organisms on Earth • Healthy ecosystems provide protection against floods and drought, detoxify and decompose wastes, and regulate climates BIODIVERSITY
5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Some human activities reduce biodiversity in ecosystems. This could have serious long-term effects on the biosphere.
Extinction • Background Extinction – process of becoming extinct • Scientists worried about the rate of extinction • Mass Extinction – an event in which a large percentage of all living species becomes extinct in a relatively short period of time • DINOSAURS!
Threats to Biodiversity • Current high rate of extinction due to activity of one species – Homo sapiens • Humans are changing the conditions on earth faster than new traits to can develop to cope with the new changes • Evolving species do not have the natural resources they need • Threats include: • Overexploitation • Habitat Loss • Pollution • Introduced Species
Threats • Overexploitation - excessive use of species that have economic value • Rhinoceros – hunted and killed for their horns • Habitat Loss • Destroyed: clearing a natural rain forest • Disrupted: decline of one species in the food web disrupts other species (overfishing) • Fragmented: separation of an ecosystem into smaller parts, cannot cross human barriers to get resources or reproduce, changes abiotic conditions
Increasing human population has lead to: Needing more space to live Loss of habitat Loss of species Loss of biodiversity
Pollution • Changes the composition of air, soil, and water • Biological magnification: increasing concentration of toxic substances in organisms as the trophic levels increase • Acid Precipitation: burning fossil fuels creates sulfur and nitrogen compounds that react with other substances in the air to form sulfuric and nitric acid • Removes calcium, potassium, and other nutrients from the soil, deprives plants
Introduced Species • Nonnative species that are either intentionally or unintentionally introduced to a new habitat • Often reproduce in large numbers because there are no predators, become invasive • Responsible for 40% of extinctions since 1750 Alligator Snapping Turtle
5.3 Conserving Biodiversity People are using many approaches to slow the rate of extinctions and to preserve biodiversity
Natural Resources • The biosphere supplies basic needs for 7 billion humans • The growth in population is not evenly distributed, nor is the consumption of natural resources
Natural Resources Renewable Nonrenewable Found on Earth in limited amounts or that are replaced by natural processes over LONG periods of time Fossil fuels A species if it becomes extinct • Resources that are replaced by natural processes faster than they are consumed • Solar energy • Clean air • Clean water Sustainable Use – using resources at a rate in which they can be replaced or recycled while preserving the long-term environmental health of the biosphere GOING GREEN
Conserving Biodiversity Protecting Restoring The larger the effected area, the longer it takes to recover Bioremediation – the use of living organisms, such as prokaryotes, fungi, or plants, to detoxify a polluted area Biological augmentation – adding natural predators to a degraded ecosystem • Hot Spots • Corridors
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 CDQ 1 Chapter Diagnostic Questions • A • B • C • D Which factor is most responsible for the lack of plants in polar regions? • heavy grazing by herbivores • little precipitation • no soil for plants to take root • not enough sunlight
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 CDQ 2 Chapter Diagnostic Questions • A • B • C • D What form of pollution is caused by extensive algae growth in waterways? • acid precipitation • eutrophication • biological magnification • edge effects
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 CDQ 3 Chapter Diagnostic Questions • A • B • C • D Which is not a renewable resource? • solar energy • fossil fuels • agricultural plants • clean water
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 1 5.1 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D Which has indirect economic value? • ecosystems that decompose wastes • organisms that provide food and shelter • plants that contain medicinal substances • species that have desirable genetic traits
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 2 5.1 Formative Questions • A • B It is likely that some of the world’s unidentified species will have economic value. • true • false
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 3 5.1 Formative Questions • A • B • C When does the aesthetic value of an ecosystem become most apparent? • when scientists begin to study the ecosystem • when the ecosystem has been destroyed • when the ecosystem is given economic value
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 4 5.2 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D Which describes the current rate of species disappearance? • background extinction • mass extinction • natural extinction • progressive extinction
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 5 5.2 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D Where are most extinctions likely to occur in the near future? • deserts • grasslands • tropical forests • temperate forests
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 6 5.2 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D What is the primary factor that has endangered the North American bison and the white rhinoceros? • habitat loss • eutrophication • overexploitation • nonnative predators
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 7 5.2 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D What is the number one cause of species extinction today? • habitat loss • human predators • transported diseases • background extermination
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 8 5.3 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D Which resource is nonrenewable? • agricultural plants • clean water • forest timber • mineral deposits
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 9 5.3 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D For which human activity is sustainable use not possible? • farming • logging • oil drilling • commercial fishing
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 10 5.3 Formative Questions • A • B • C • D Which is an example of bioremediation? • replanting trees in an area affected by acid rain • using microorganisms to detoxify an oil spill • enacting a law that protects endangered amphibians • introducing natural predators to control a crop pest
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 CAQ 1 Chapter Assessment Questions Look at the figure. Name the process that is occurring with the increasing concentration of DDT. • A • B • C • D • pollution • extinction • biological magnification • habitat fragmentation
Biodiversity and Conservation • 1–10 years • 10–100 years • 100–1000 years • 1000 years or more Chapter 5 CAQ 2 Chapter Assessment Questions Use the graph to determine the approximate recovery time for a volcanic eruption. • A • B • C • D
Biodiversity and Conservation Answer:Killer whales started to prey on sea otters instead of sea lions and harbor seals. Chapter 5 CAQ 3 Chapter Assessment Questions Explain how killer whales adapted to their environment when their primary food source began to disappear.
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 STP 1 Standardized Test Practice • A • B • C • D Which type of biodiversity increases as you move geographically from the polar regions to the equator? • ecosystem diversity • genetic diversity • social diversity • species diversity
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 STP 2 Standardized Test Practice • A • B • C • D How does genetic diversity increase a species’ chance of survival? • It increases the number of organisms that have useful genes. • It increases the ability of a species to adapt toenvironmental changes. • It produces a variety of species within a biological community. • It randomly distributes members of a species throughout an ecosystem.
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 STP 3 Standardized Test Practice • A • B • C • D If a toxic substance enters this food web, which animals will have the highest concentration of the toxic substance in their tissues? • fishes • killer whales • sea otters • sea urchins
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 STP 4 Standardized Test Practice • A • B • C • D What type of substances causes eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems? • acid rain • fertilizers • PCBs • pesticides
Biodiversity and Conservation • land area • population • industrialization • availability of resources Chapter 5 STP 5 Standardized Test Practice • A • B • C • D Which factor has the greatest impact on a country’s rate of natural resource consumption?
Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 STP 6 Standardized Test Practice • A • B • C • D Which event has the greatest potential to cause irreversible damage to biodiversity? • oil spill • urbanization • industrial pollution • modern agriculture