Conservation values and Ethics (保育的價值與倫理) 鄭先祐 (Ayo) 國立台南大學 環境生態研究所 教授 環境與生態學院 院長 Japalura@hotmail.com
Contents • The value of biodiversity (生物多樣性的價值) • Instrumental value • Intrinsic value • Monetizing the value of biodiversity • Conservation Ethics (保育的倫理) • Essay 4.1 our duties to endangered species • Essay 4.2 Monks, temples, and trees: the spirit of diversity • Essay 4.3 The importance of value systems in management • Case study 4.1 Cypress forest conservation on Taiwan: a question of value
The value of biodiversity • Environmental philosophers customarily divide value into two main types, instrumental or utilitarian and intrinsic or inherent. • The view that biodiversity has value only as a means to human ends is called anthropocentric. • The view that biodiversity is valuable simply because it exists, independently of its use to human beings, is called biocentric or ecocentric.
Instrumental value • Four basic categories: goods, services, information, and psycho-spiritual (Table 4.1)
Intrinsic value • The sorts of things that may possess intrinsic value • Whether intrinsic value exists objectively or is subjectively conferred. • Value in the philosophical sense • Biocentric environmental philosophers • – organism is self-organizing and self-directed.
Norton’s convergence hypothesis • Anthropocentric instrumental values + non-anthropocentric intrinsic value = conserve biodiversity
Burden of proof according to instrumental and intrinsic value systems (Fig. 4.2) • When biodiversity is only instrumentally valuable • Burden of proof是在 conservationists • When biodiversity is intrinsically as well as instrumentally valuable • Burden of proof是在 developers
Monetizing the value of biodiversity • The tragedy of the commons (Hardin, 1968) • Holmes Rolston III provides an alternative perspective in Essay 4.1 • Essay 4.1 Our duties to endangered species • Safe minimum standard (SMS), Bishop (1978) • Assumes that biodiversity has incalculable value and should be conserved unless the cost of doing so is prohibitively high (Fig. 4.3).
CBA vs. SMS (Fig. 4.3, p.119) • Standard cost-benefit analysis (CBA) • Burden of proof → conservation • Safe minimum standard (SMS) • Burden of proof → development
Conservation Ethics (Table 4.2, p.120) • Anthropocentrism • In the western religious and philosophical tradition, only human beings are worthy of ethical consideration. • All other things are regarded as mere means to human ends. • The Judeo-Christian stewardship conservation ethic • Diversity is God’s property, and we, who bear the relationship to it of strangers(陌生者) and sojourners (寄居者), have no right to destroy it.
Conservation Ethics (Table 4.2, p.120) • Traditional non-western environmental ethics • Muslim (Islam) (回教), Hinduism(印度教), Jainism (耆那教), Confucianism (孔教), Daoism (道教) (Table 4.3) • Biocentrism (生命中心主義) • Life-centered environmental ethics • All living things are of equal inherent worth (Taylor, 1986) (Fig. 4.6, p.127) • Ecocentrism (生態中心主義)
Biocentrism (生命中心主義) • Rolston’s biocentrism • All individual organisms baseline intrinsic value → Sentient animals → self-conscious human beings • Species → ecological systems → wholes • Taylor’s biocentrism • Equal intrinsic value：self-conscious human beings, sentient animals, invertebrates, plants, bacteria,
Ecocentrism • Leopold land ethic • Changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land community to plain member and citizen of it. • A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.
Supplements • Essay 4.1 our duties to endangered species • Essay 4.2 Monks, temples, and trees: the spirit of diversity • Essay 4.3 The importance of value systems in management • Case study 4.1 Cypress forest conservation on Taiwan: a question of value