generic adaptive control l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Generic Adaptive Control PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Generic Adaptive Control

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 36

Generic Adaptive Control - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 169 Views
  • Uploaded on

Generic Adaptive Control. Contact: Joe Hellerstein IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center hellers@us.ibm.com May 16, 2003 http://www.research.ibm.com/PM. Participants. Research Joe Bigus (ABLE) Markus Debusman (University of Applied Science, Wiesbaden Germany) Yixin Diao Frank Eskesen

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Generic Adaptive Control' - lequoia


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
generic adaptive control

Generic Adaptive Control

Contact: Joe Hellerstein

IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center

hellers@us.ibm.com

May 16, 2003

http://www.research.ibm.com/PM

participants
Participants
  • Research
    • Joe Bigus (ABLE)
    • Markus Debusman (University of Applied Science, Wiesbaden Germany)
    • Yixin Diao
    • Frank Eskesen
    • Steve Froehlich
    • Joe Hellerstein
    • Alexander Keller
    • Xue Lui (Univ. of Illinois)
    • Sujay Parekh
    • Lui Sha (Univ. of Illinois)
    • Maheswaran Surendra (team lead)
    • Dawn Tilbury (Univ. of Michigan)
  • DB2
    • Randy Horman
    • Matt Huras
    • Ed Lassettre
    • Sam Lightstone
    • Kevin Rose
    • Adam Storm
  • WebSphere
    • Carolyn Norton
  • HVWS
    • Noshir Wadia
    • Eric Ye
  • Server Group
    • Lisa Spainhower
slide3

URL Cache

EJB threads

JVM heap size

Servlet reload int

MaxClients

Number of

Threads

DB

Connections

KeepAlive

TImeout

Fast response cache

MaxRequestsPerChild

ThreadsPerChild

Max simultan. requests

ListenBackLog

Challenges:

Skill shortage

Multiple vendors, multiple standards

Mapping policies to IT “knobs”

Administrator

Example: Configuration & Optimization in WebSphere

Web Servers

End Users

Application Servers

project goals
Project Goals
  • Develop a formal basis for resource management problems with dynamics (especially policy enforcement)
  • Demonstrate the practical value of the approach
  • Evangelize the approach
    • Book, tutorials, classes
    • Methodology and tools
agenda
Agenda
  • Basics of Control Theory
  • Regulating concurrent users in Lotus Notes: pole placement design
  • Regulating utilizations in Apache
  • Optimizing response times in Apache
  • Throttling DB2 utilities
  • DB2 self-tuning memory
  • Regulating service levels in a multi-tiered eCommerce system (HotRod)
  • Educational efforts (book, tutorials)
  • Summary
slide6

AutoTune Agent

K=.1

K=1

K=5

Uncontrolled

Slow

Better

Bad

Control of Lotus Notes eMail Server

Workload generator

RPCs

Administrator

MaxUsers

Lotus Notes Server

Target

Queue Length

Measured Queue Length

system identification estimate transfer function

MaxUsers

Notes Server

Actual Queue Length

Dynamic model

100

80

Predicted QL

60

40

20

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

Observed QL

System Identification:Estimate Transfer Function
controller design

H(z) = Closed Loop Transfer Function

+

Controller

G(z)

Notes Server

N(z)

Sensor

S(z)

-

Design for “poles” of H(z)

Simplified Integral Control Law

K=5

K=1

Controller Design
control of apache server

Workload generator

AutoTune Agent

Web Service requests

Administrator

MaxClients,

KeepAlive TO

Apache System

Policies &

Reports

CPU Utilization,

Memory Utilization

Control of Apache Server

Contribution: Multiple Input, Multiple Output

apache control enablements

LEGEND

HTTP

Inter-Process

Value flow

Shared Mem

Process

MaxClients

KeepAlive

SvcTime

stats

Get/Set interface

Internal Controller

mod_controller (close-up)

Apache Control Enablements

OS (procfs)

Web Server

CPU util

Mem util

Master

External

Controller

GET/SET

KILL

SPAWN

mod_controller

Worker Procs

RT info

External

RT Probe

model structure

G11

G11

S

+

+

+

+

0

SISO approach assumes cross terms are negligible

G21

G21

MIMO

model

SISO

vs.

MIMO

0

G12

G12

+

+

G22

G22

+

+

S

Model Structure

The Transfer Function Relationship

G11

KA

CPU

Two

SISO

models

G22

MC

MEM

Apache Server

model comparison

MIMO Model

CPU

CPU

MEM

MEM

KA

KA

MC

MC

Time (s)

Time (s)

Model Comparison

Model

Prediction

Two SISO Models

CPU: SISO model fails because MC and KA both affect CPU,

MIMO model is able to capture this relationship

MEM: Both models do a good job of predicting system response

optimization of apache server
Optimization of Apache Server

Workload generator

AutoTune Agent

Web Service requests

MaxClients

Apache System

Response Time

apache operation
Apache Operation

New Users

Close()

Timeout()

+

New conn

MaxClients

TCP

Accept

queue

Apache

Heuristic: Find the smallest MaxClients that eliminates

TCP queueing

slide15

Apache Defaults

Impact of MaxClients

Response Time

MaxClients

autotune using fuzzy rules

d/dt

Inference

mechanism

Fuzzy

Controller

Fuzzification

Defuzzification

Rule base

AutoTune Using Fuzzy Rules
  • Fuzzification
    • Convert numeric variables to linguistic variables
    • Characterized by membership functions
  • Rule base
    • IF-THEN rules
    • Using linguistic variables
  • Inference mechanism
    • Activate the fuzzy rules (IF)
    • Combine the rule actions (THEN)
  • Defuzzification
    • Convert linguistic variables to numeric variables
constructing fuzzy rules
Constructing Fuzzy Rules

Rule 3

Rule 1

  • Decision making:
  • Increment direction
  • Increment size

Response

Time (RT)

Rule 4

Rule 2

MaxClients

  • Rule 1:IF change-in-MaxClients is poslarge and change-in-RT
  • is neglarge THEN next-change-in-MaxClients is poslarge
  • Rule 2:IF change-in-MaxClients is neglarge and change-in-RT
  • is poslarge THEN next-change-in-MaxUsers is poslarge
  • Rule 3:IF change-in-MaxClients is neglarge and change-in-RT
  • is neglarge THEN next-change-in-MaxUsers is neglarge
  • Rule 4:IF change-in-MaxClients is poslarge and change-in-RT
  • is poslarge THEN next-change-in-MaxUsers is neglarge
slide18

Apache default

Optimized setting

AutoTune Controlling MaxClients on Apache

slide19

New optimized setting

Old optimized setting

AutoTune Response to a new workload

Workload changes

slide20

DB2 UDB Utilities Throttling

(SMART Project)

Target Utilization

Backup

Disk,

CPU

Utilizations

Restore

UDB

Engine

Re-Balance

Sleep Delay

Server

success is
Success Is:

Small Effect on

User Throughput

High System Utilization

Gap due to reduced utilization in sleep periods

1

% Utilization

Time

Note: This is a longer-time averaged value than on slide 5.

throttling a single utility

Workload

b

b

Utility

U

a

U

Y

+

a

DB2

Throttling a Single Utility
  • Standard PI controller tries to reach E=0
  • Assume: linear effect of throttling on Y

Parameters characterizing DB2

Control error

Max thruput from utility + workload

Thruput degradation

baseline measurement idling
Baseline Measurement: idling

P1

Time

P2

P3

  • “Start” is perf output after all Pi have read new control value.
  • “End” is from closest output to control change

Start1

End1

Start2

End2

Control Points

“Loop” Throughput

“Other” (Sleep) Throughput

baseline estimation

p

s

1

Baseline Estimation
  • Over time, record sequence {(ti, pi, si)}
    • t = Time
    • p = Perf at time t
    • s = SleepPct at time t
  • Fit a “curve” to this data, to get model M
    • E.g., Over some fixed time interval of the past
control with disturbance
Control with disturbance

Large Disturbance

Small Disturbance

  • Baseline estimation needs work
    • Cannot adjust to large workload change
  • Controller response still OK
dynamic surge protection

Few

minutes

later…

Dynamic Surge Protection

Systems can go from steady state …

Internet

  • tooverloaded without warning
resource actions with lead times
Resource Actions With Lead Times
  • Definition of lead time:
    • Delay from request to action taking effect
  • Examples
    • From provision a server to its servicing requesting
    • From de-provision a server to its being returned to a free pool
    • From increase size of a buffer pool to pool is filled with data
slide31

Solution Manager

On-Line Capacity Planning

Adaptive Forecasting

On-Demand Actions

HVWS

Performance

Modeler

A

Controller

Forecaster

Plan

Analyze

On-Demand Actions

Deployment Manager

M

M

Execute

E

E

Configuration

Management

BOPS

Monitoring

P

P

Monitor

Knowledge

Sensors

Effectors

3

Element

S

Workload

A

A

2

DB2

v8.1

#WAS

1

WAS

5.0

RT

Application

E

E

Autonomic Computing: Dynamic Surge Protection

cebit press
CeBit Press

Reuters: IBM: Software Can Predict Computer Demand

C/Net: IBM offers details on autonomic software

InfoWorld: IBM to show new autonomic suite at CeBIT

IDG News: IBM to show off new autonomic technology

InformationWeek: More Autonomic Capabilities From IBM

InternetNews:IBM Spruces Up Autonomic Computing Offerings

cw360.com: IBM to demo autonomic technology at CeBIT

control theory book
Control Theory Book
  • Feedback Control of Computing Systems
    • Wiley-Interscience
  • Intended audience
    • Computer scientist with minimal math background (geometric series) who want to apply techniques to practical problems
    • Control theorist looking for new applications
  • Status
    • 10 of 11 chapters at a “beta” level
    • Expected completion by end of June
    • Publication in 2004
table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Introduction (Qualitative control theory)
  • Model construction (statistics)
  • Z-Transforms and transfer functions (component models)
  • Block diagrams (system models)
  • First order systems
  • Higher order systems
  • State space models (multi-variate models)
  • Proportional control (feedback basics)
  • Other classical controllers (PID, tuning controllers)
  • State space feedback control (MIMO)
  • Advanced topics
progress towards project goals
Progress Towards Project Goals
  • Develop/identify a formal approach
    • Control theory based
  • Demonstrate value
    • Lotus Notes – control w/o instabilities
    • Apache – simple way to optimize tuning parameters
    • DB2 Utilities Throttling HotRod – handling resource actions with dead times
    • HotRod prototype – resource actions w/lead times
  • Evangelize
    • Feedback Control of Computing Systems, Wiley-Interscience
    • Tutorials: Almaden, Integrated Management, Stanford/Berkeley
    • Classes: Columbia?, University of Michigan?
    • AC toolkit integration
slide36
"Using Control Theory to Achieve Service Level Objectives in Performance Management," S Parekh, N Gandhi, JL Hellerstein, D Tilbury, TS Jayram, J Bigus, Real Time Systems Journal, 2002.

"Feedback Control of a Lotus Notes Server: Modeling and Control Design," N. Gandhi, S. Parekh, J. Hellerstein, and D.M. Tilbury, American Control Conference, 2001. (Best paper in session.)

"An Introduction to Control Theory With Applications to Computer Science," JL Hellerstein and S Parekh, ACM Sigmetrics, 2001.

Using MIMO Feedback Control to Enforce Policies for Interrelated Metrics With Application to the Apache Web Serve," Y Diao, N Gandhi, JL Hellerstein, S Parekh, and DM Tilbury. Network Operations and Management, 2002. (Best paper in conference.)

"MIMO Control of an Apache Web Server: Modeling and Controller Design," Y Diao, N Gandhi, JL Hellerstein, S Parekh, and DM Tilbury, American Control Conference, 2002. (Best paper in session.)

"Using Fuzzy Control to Maximize Profits in Service Level Management," Y Diao, JL Hellerstein, S Parekh. Accepted to the IBM Systems Journal, 2002.

"A First-Principles Approach to Constructing Transfer Functions for Admission Control in Computing Systems," JL Hellerstein, Y Diao, and S Parekh. Conference on Decision and Control, 2002.

"Generic On-Line Discovery of Quantitative Models for Service Level Management," Y Diao, F Eskesen, S Froehlich, JL Hellerstein, A Keller, L Spainhower, and M Surendra, IFIP Symposium on Integrated Management, 2003.

On-Line Response Time Optimization of An Apache Web Server," Yixin Diao, Xue Lui, Steve Froehlich, Joseph L Hellerstein, Sujay Parekh, and Lui Sha. To appear in International Workshop on Quality of Service, 2003.

http://www.research.ibm.com/PM