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Workplace studies with software teams. Integrating Agile development with User Experience design Jennifer Ferreira jen.ferreira@ucalgary.ca Helen Sharp, Hugh Robinson. Outline. Integrating Agile development with UX design. Outline. Integrating Agile development with UX design

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workplace studies with software teams

Workplace studies with software teams

Integrating Agile development

with User Experience design

Jennifer Ferreira

jen.ferreira@ucalgary.ca

Helen Sharp, Hugh Robinson

slide2

Outline

  • Integrating Agile development with UX design
slide3

Outline

  • Integrating Agile development with UX design
    • Problem?
slide4

Outline

  • Integrating Agile development with UX design
    • Problem?
  • Workplace studies
slide5

Outline

  • Integrating Agile development with UX design
    • Problem?
  • Workplace studies
  • Achieving integration
slide6

Outline

  • Integrating Agile development with UX design
    • Problem?
  • Workplace studies
  • Achieving integration
  • Implications
intro
Intro

Agile development + UX design

slide8

Agile development

XP Scrum FDD ASD

slide9

*Design

  • interaction design [Patton 2002a]
  • usage centered design [Patton 2002b]
  • discount usability engineering [Kane 2003]
  • rapid contextual design [Beyer et al. 2004]
  • user experience design [Hodgetts 2005]
  • user centered design [Miller 2005]
  • scenario-based design [Lee and McCrickard 2007]
  • goal-directed design [Cho 2009]
slide10

User Experience (UX) Design

  • ISO CD 9241-210
  • “all aspects of the user’s experience when interacting with the product, service, environment or facility.”
slide11

User Experience (UX) Design

indicative of the collection of methods, tools, techniques, etc. for involving and maintaining focus on the end user in software development

  • - understand users
  • - design
  • - evaluate
slide12

User Experience (UX) Design

WORK

indicative of the collection of methods, tools, techniques, etc. for involving and maintaining focus on the end user in software development

  • - understand users
  • - design
  • - evaluate
combination
Combination

Agile development + UX design

slide14

Debates

  • The place of UX design in Agile development
  • When what happens
slide15

Debates

  • The place of UX design in Agile development
  • When what happens
    • - Up front
    • - In the Agile iterations
slide16

Debates

  • The place of UX design in Agile development
  • When what happens
    • - Up front  BDUF
    • - In the Agile iterations
slide17

Debates

  • The place of UX design in Agile development
  • When what happens
    • - Up front  BDUF
    • - In the Agile iterations

BAD

slide18

Debates

  • The place of UX design in Agile development
  • When what happens
    • - Up front  BDUF
    • - In the Agile iterations  too short

BAD

slide19

Debates

  • The place of UX design in Agile development
  • When what happens
    • - Up front  BDUF
    • - In the Agile iterations  too short

BAD

BAD

slide20

Simplistic view

comparisons of values and principles  process

e.g. both Agile and UX are iterative

and both focus on the customer/end user

slide21

Simplistic view

“The two-track organization is what we aimed for, although in reality it was a little more complex. Some designs needed longer than a single cycle to complete. For example, one particularly troublesome feature took us over 5 cycles before the design passed all of its goals.”

Lynn Miller, "Case Study of Customer Input For a Successful Product," Agile Development Conference, pp. 225-234, Agile Development Conference (ADC'05), 2005.

how are agile development and ux design combined
How are Agile development and UX design combined?
  • How is integration accomplished on a day-to-day basis?
    • Singer et al. “… little is known about how software engineers perform their work. In order to improve software engineering tools and practice, it is therefore essential to conduct field studies, i.e., to study real practitioners as they solve real problems.”
    • Janice Singer, Susan E. Sim, and Timothy C. Lethbridge (2008) Software Engineering Data Collection for Field Studies. Guide to Advanced Empirical Software Engineering. Forrest Shull, Janice Singer, Dag I.K. Sjøberg Editors. Pages 9—34, ISBN-13: 978-1-84800-043-8.
how are agile development and ux design combined1
How are Agile development and UX design combined?
  • How is integration accomplished on a day-to-day basis?
    • Only 4 of 23 empirical studies included observations of practice in work settings
how are agile development and ux design combined2
How are Agile development and UX design combined?
  • How is integration accomplished on a day-to-day basis?
    • Only 4 of 23 empirical studies included observations of practice in work settings
    •  Study practitioners in the workplace
same same but different
Same same but different
  • all three organisations
  • successful at delivering software
  • highly valued UX design
  • used Scrum

different experiences of practice

same same but different1
Same same but different
  • all three organisations
  • successful at delivering software
  • highly valued UX design
  • used Scrum

different experiences of practice

  • the best way to create software
how are agile development and ux design combined3
How are Agile development and UX design combined?
  • Integration
    • On-going – negotiated, day-to-day, individuals
    • Achieved – variety of conditions:
      • Developers and designers were kept apart
      • Developers and designers were working closely together
      • Developer designers were trialling working closely together
integration as
Integration as…
  • Expectations about acceptable behaviour
  • Mutual awareness
  • Negotiating progress
  • Engaging with each other
integration as1
Integration as…
  • Expectations about acceptable behaviour
  • Mutual awareness
  • Negotiating progress
  • Engaging with each other
expectations about acceptable behaviour
Expectations about acceptable behaviour
  • expectations about how the other group behaves
    • what developers expect
      • -- due to Scrum commitments
    • what UX designers expect
      • -- due to UX design commitments
expectations about acceptable behaviour1
Expectations about acceptable behaviour

“Could we have a

meeting to give you

some feedback?”

“What kind of feedback

do you want to give?”

designers: expected

to hand over designs

and move onto the

next project

developers: expected

to provide feedback as issues arose

developers: expected

designers to provide

timely redesigns

designers: not expecting on-going conversations

Apart

expectations about acceptable behaviour2
Expectations about acceptable behaviour

“Which would be

easier to

implement?”

“Either would

be fine.”

designers: expected developer to answer their questions

developer: expected

that the designers

would have

questions

designers: expected that the developercould answer their questions

designers: expected

developer to have useful input

Together

integration as2
Integration as…
  • Expectations about acceptable behaviour
  • Mutual awareness
  • Negotiating progress
  • Engaging with each other
mutual awareness
Mutual awareness
  • UX designers being aware of what constitutes work for Agile developers
  • Agile developers being aware of what constitutes work for UX designers
  • levels vary between the teams
slide38

Mutual awareness

“Are the designs

ready?”

“We're moving desks

today.”

Agile developers and UX designers seated on different floors

rigid role boundaries

Agile developers and

UX designers on separate teams

tense

Apart

slide39

Mutual awareness

fluid role boundaries

bonded team

on-going conversations

relaxed

Together

integration as3
Integration as…
  • Expectations about acceptable behaviour
  • Mutual awareness
  • Negotiating progress
  • Engaging with each other
negotiating progress
Negotiating progress
  • Maintaining workflow under uncertainty
    • client expectations? (market, dependencies on other projects)
    • requirements
  • decision-makers are not always available
  • teams make progress in spite of this – they HAVE to
negotiating progress1
Negotiating progress

“Could we have a

meeting to give you

some feedback?”

“What kind of feedback

do you want to give?”

reluctant

phased

formal

a set of activities

constrained

Apart

negotiating progress2
Negotiating progress

“What do you

remember from

the client meeting?”

“I think they wanted

more pop.”

on-the-fly

informal

agreed together

Together

integration as4
Integration as…
  • Expectations about acceptable behaviour
  • Mutual awareness
  • Negotiating progress
  • Engaging with each other
engaging with each other
Engaging with each other
  • developers and designers do 2 types of work:
    • own
    • together
  • input
    • decision-making
    • expertise

switch

engaging with each other1
Engaging with each other

“Could we have a

meeting to give you

some feedback?”

“What kind of feedback

do you want to give?”

explicit

require design expertise to proceed

designers leading, developers releasing software

developers approaching designers

Apart

engaging with each other2
Engaging with each other

“What do you

remember from

the client meeting?”

“I think they wanted

more pop.”

implicit

status updates

solution is negotiated

clarifications

Together

slide48

Achieving integration

  • Systematic, separatist approach
  • walking around, finding
  • meetings, logistics
  • communicating via documents, up to date

“Are the designs

ready?”

“We're moving desks

today.”

Apart

slide49

Achieving integration

  • Subtle, on-going effort
  • shared awareness of design values and technical constraints
  • shared decision-making

Together

findings
Findings
  • Not just about process
  • Teams are not isolated
  • Not just about seating the developers with designers (i.e. colocation)
  • Integration is shaped by organisational and team-level factors
    •  views on how best to create software
implications
Implications
  • views on how best to create software
  • Implications
    • for processes and tools
    • team arrangements
implications processes and tools
Implications: processes and tools
  • Supporting and maintaining
    • expectations about acceptable behaviour
    • mutual awareness
    • negotiating progress
    • engaging with each other
implications team arrangements
Implications: team arrangements
  • Not about co-location
  •  working closely together
  •  achieved in different ways
      • Valuing input from different roles
      • Enabling roles to work together
      • Understanding and sharing responsibilities