Making Comparisons State Regime Fundamental norms and rules regarding individual freedom and collective equality, the locus of power and the use of that power. Established by administrations over time Institutionalized, but can be changed by dramatic social events such as a revolution. Categorized at the most basic level as either democratic or authoritarian. Often embodied in a constitution. • The monopoly of force over a given territory. • A set of political institutions to generate and carry out policy. • Typically highly institutionalized. • Sovereign. • Characterized by such institutions as an army, police, taxation, a judiciary, and a social welfare system.
Government • The leadership or elite in charge of running the state. • Weakly institutionalized. • Often characterized by elected officials, such as a president or prime minister, or unelected officials, such as in authoritarianism. • Limited by the existing regime.
Government Regime State Less institutionalized More Institutionalized
Civil Society (A key to democratization?) • Civil society consists of voluntary associations outside of the government. • Alexis de Tocqueville: “art of association” • May be inherently apolitical, but a vehicle for democracy
Democracy • A system of government where people choose policymakers in free, regular, competitive elections • Illiberal--procedural (holds elections) but without civil rights and liberties • Liberal--political competition, accountability, civil rights and liberties
Institutions • Executive • Legislative • Judicial • Bureaucracy
FPTP/SMD • Winner-take-all • The winner gets the one seat available in an election • House of Commons, US Congress
Proportional Representation • Votes for parties, rather than candidates • Parties are represented in legislature according to percentage of votes received • Parties select office holders based on candidate lists
Defining “Democratization” • The transformation process: a non-democratic regime to a procedural democracy to a substantive democracy
Legacies of the 20th Century • 1. genocide and mass murder • 2. democratization
Concepts of Democracy • 1. normative understanding: • 2. procedural: • 3. substantive results: • What does democracy mean? • Concerns? • Illiberal democracies Russia: a delegated or managed democracy?
Concerns: • Minimal standard? • “veneer of democracy” • Russia: a delegated or managed democracy?
Emergence of Democracies:structural vs. agency • Structural view (more pessimistic) • emphasizes: 1. 2. 3. • strong correlation between economic development (GDP/capita) and democracy • critique:
Agency view (more positive) • more emphasis on political actors • window of opportunity, instability • who are the relevant political actors? • Russia: sofa v. floating parties
Other Factors • Role of political culture? • Globalization?
Ways of Thinking About Democracy • 1. a linear progression • 2. divergent paths