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Word Identification Skills. English 84 El Camino College Professor Stephanie Schwartz Fall 2013 CSU Fullerton Graduate Student: Carolee Vakil-Jessop CSUF READ 597 – Final Project. Word Identification Skills.

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word identification skills

Word Identification Skills

English 84

El Camino College

Professor Stephanie Schwartz

Fall 2013

CSU Fullerton Graduate Student: Carolee Vakil-Jessop

CSUF READ 597 – Final Project

word identification skills1
Word Identification Skills
  • Sight Words – words which are most commonly found in written materials. Review Fry’s New Instant Words list to see how many you know!
  • First 100 words

the or will number he we some call at

of one up no was when her who she

and had other way for your would oil two

a by about could on can make now come

to word out people are said like find be

in but many my as there him long do

is not then than with use into down more

you what them first his an time day made

that all these water they each has did this

it were so been I which look get how

write may have their go part from if see

over

word identification skills2
Word Identification Skills
  • Second 100 words

new great put kind sound where end hand take

help does picture only through another again little much

well change work before large off know line must

play place right big spell year too even air

live mean such away me old because animal back

any turn house give same here point most tell

why page very boy ask letter after follow went

mother thing came men answer our want read found

just show need study name also land still good

around different learn sentence form home should man three

us America think small move world say set try

high

word identification skills3
Word Identification Skills
  • Third one hundred words

Every left until idea near don’t children enough

Add few side eat food while feet face

Between along car watch own might mile far

Below close night Indian country something walk real

Plant seem white almost last next sea let

School hard began above father open grow girl

Keep example took sometimes tree begin river mountain

Never life four cut start always carry young

City those state talk earth both once soon

Eye paper book list light together hear song

Thought got stop leave head group without family

Under often second body story run late music

Saw important miss color

word identification skills4
Word Identification Skills
  • Use context clues.
  • Context clues are the words, phrases and sentences surrounding the unknown word which provide clues as to the meaning of the unknown word.
    • Semantic and Syntactic Cues are important types of context clues.
    • Semantic cues = meaning cues
    • Semantic cues are taken from the meanings of the surrounding words, phrases and sentences
    • Ex: Daniel went out to walk her bichon frise.
    • Ask yourself what kind of things can be walked?
    • Answer: dogs
    • Therefore, bichon frise is probably a type of dog. It is!
word identification skills5
Word Identification Skills
  • Context Clues
    • Syntactic cues = grammar clues
    • Because certain types of words appear certain positions in spoken and written English, the word order gives clues to the meaning of an unknown word.
    • Ex: Will you football with me?
    • Think what type of word would make sense in the sentence? Noun? Verb? Adjective? Adverb?
    • Answer: a word showing action = verb
    • Possible verbs: watch, play
word identification skills6
Word Identification Skills
  • Homographs – words that look the alike but have different meanings and sometimes different pronunciations.
  • Examples: row, wind, bow, read, content, rebel, minute, lead, record and live
  • Context can clarify the pronunciation and meaning of homographs.

Read the following sentences and listen to how the italicized word is pronounced differently.

The wind was blowing hard today. Will you wind the clock tonight?

I put a bow on every present I wrap. After a theatrical performance the actors take a bow.

My friend James is considered a rebel. Some teenagers rebel against their parents.

I record television shows with my DVR. Olympians often break world records.

word identification skills7
Word Identification Skills
  • Structural Analysis – enables readers to decode unfamiliar words using larger units than a single grapheme (letter).
  • Types of Structural Analysis
    • Inflectional Endings
    • Prefixes and suffixes
    • Contractions
    • Compound words
    • Syllabication and accent
word identification skills8
Word Identification Skills
  • Inflectional endings = suffixes: -s, -ed, -ing
    • They do not change the meaning of the root word
    • When added to nouns – changes number, case or gender
    • When added to verbs – changes tense or person
    • When added to adjectives – changes degree
    • The also can change the root word’s part of speech.
    • Examples: girl girls

walk walks walking walked

shop shops shopping shopped

word identification skills9
Word Identification Skills
  • Inflectional endings: -s, -ed, -ing
  • Changes to Base Words When Adding Inflectional Endings

Base Words +ing +ed +s

  • CVVC, CVCC No change No change No change

Ex: look, walk looking, walking looked, walked looks, walks

  • CVC Double final letter Double final letter No change

Ex: bat batting batted bats

  • CVCe Drop final e Drop final e No change

Ex: rake raking raked rakes

  • Words that end in consonant No change Change y to i Change y to i

+y . Ex: cry crying cried cries

  • Words that end in a vowel No change No change No change

+y. Ex: play playing played plays

  • Two-syllable words accented Follow rules 1-5 Follow rules 1-5 Follow rules 1-5

on the second syllable admitting, inviting, admitted, invited admits, invites

Ex: admit, invite, apply, enjoy applying, enjoying applied, enjoyed applies, enjoys

  • Words that end in c Add a k Add a k No change

Ex: panic panicking panicked panics

word identification skills10
Word Identification Skills
  • Prefixes and Suffixes are known as affixes, and they are letters or sequences of letters that are added to root words to change their meanings and/or parts of speech.
  • A prefix is placed before a root word and a suffix is placed after a root word.
  • Good readers learn to recognize common prefixes and suffixes automatically. This helps them recognize unknown words more rapidly than sounding out a word.
  • Knowledge of prefixes and suffixes can help readers decipher the meanings as well as the pronunciations of unfamiliar words.
  • Common prefixes to learn: un-, re-, in-, im-, ir-, dis-, en-, em-, non-, in-, im-, over- and mis-
  • Common suffixes to learn: -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -ly, -er, -or, -ion, -tion, -ation, -ition, -ible, -able, -al, -ial, -y, -ness, -er, -ed, and -ing
word identification skills11
Word Identification Skills
  • Contractions
    • The apostrophe used in contractions indicates that one or more letters have been left out when two words were combined into one word. Good readers are able to identify the two words that are combined into one.
    • Common contractions:

Can’t/cannot I’d/I had or I would I’ll/I will

Shouldn’t/should not we’ve/we have I’ve/I have

We’re/we are they’re/they are Isn’t/Is not

she’d/she would or she had Let’s/let us

word identification skills12
Word Identification Skills
  • Compound Words
  • Exploring compound words can help a reader develop the following skills
    • The reader learns how words can combine in different ways to form new words.
    • The study of compound words lays the foundation for studying syllables.
    • Students reinforce their knowledge of the spelling of high-frequency words.
    • Ex: bedroom, lightweight, sunlight, fireman
word identification skills13
Word Identification Skills
  • Syllables
  • Open syllables (CV syllable pattern) end with a long-vowel sound: tiger, Katy, reason
  • Closed syllables (CVC syllable pattern) contain a short-vowel sound that is usually closed by two consonants: Caddie, rabbit, racket

Syllable patterns

Pattern Type Examples

VCCV Closed skipping, button, chapter, window

V/CV Open lazy, coma, beacon, bacon

VC/V Closed river, robin, cover, planet

VCCCV Closed laughter, pilgrim, instant, complain

VV Open create, riot, liar

word identification skills14
Word Identification Skills
  • Accent
    • Most words with two or more syllables, one of the syllables is accented or stressed more than the others.
    • Some dictionaries use bold apostrophes to identify the accented/stressed syllable.
    • Practicing identifying the accented/stressed syllable is beneficial to decoding other words with the same patterns.
    • When pronouncing a word ask yourself, which syllable sounds louder than the others?
word identification skills15
Word Identification Skills
  • Sources:
  • Bear, D.R., et al. (2008). Words Their Way. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Roe, B. D., Smith, S. H., & Burns, P. C. (2009). Teaching Reading in Today's Elementary Schools. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.