Unit 2: Structure Notes Who am I?. Beginning Language Level 1 (A). Structures. Common Cognate rules Nouns (singular and plural ) Subject Pronouns Verbs TO BE Articles Adjectives. Structure: Cognates.
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Unit2: StructureNotesWho am I? BeginningLanguageLevel 1 (A)
Structures • CommonCognate rules • Nouns(singular and plural) • SubjectPronouns • Verbs TO BE • Articles • Adjectives
Structure: Cognates • English and Spanish Cognates are words in both languages that share the same Latin root and which are very similar. • It is important to bear in mind that these cognates do not always translate from one language to another precisely. • These cognates appear mainly in NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, VERBS, ADVERBS.
Los cognados: Nouns I • English nouns and Spanish nouns ending in '-or' are very often identical. • Actorcolordoctor directorhorror • English nouns and Spanish nouns ending in '-al' are very common identical. • Generalhospitalmanualmoralanimal • Many English nouns ending with '-ist', can be converted into Spanish nouns by changing to '-ista'. • Artistaegoístalistasocialistaturista • English nouns ending with '-y' often correspond to Spanish nouns ending with '-ía', '-ia', or '-io'. Agencia agonía batería familia historia urgencia salario testimonio diccionario
Los cognados: Nouns II • Many English nouns ending with '-ism', can be converted into Spanish nouns by changing to '-ismo'. • Idealismo despotismo mecanismo organismo optimismo • Many English nouns ending with '-nce', can be converted into Spanish nouns by changing to '-ncia'. • Abundanciaarroganciaexperienciapaciencia • Many English nouns ending with '-ty', can be converted into Spanish nouns by changing to '-dad'. • Actividad curiosidad electricidad identidad • Many English nouns ending with '-tion', can be converted into Spanish nouns by changing to '-ción'. Asociación combinación condición exempción
Los cognados: Adjectives • Like nouns, many English adjectives can be converted into Spanish simply by changing the word ending. Here are some useful rules. • -ive → ivoACTIVE ACTIVO • -al = -al CRIMINAL CRIMINAL • -ous→ -osoDELICIOUS DELICIOSO • -ic → -icoFANTASTIC FANTÁSTICO • -ble= -bleTERRIBLE TERRIBLE • -nt → -nteIMPORTANT IMPORTANTE • -id→ -idoSTUPID ESTÚPIDO • -ile→ -ilFRAGILE FRÁGIL • -ary→ -arioORDINARY ORDINARIO
Los cognados: Verbs • Almost every English verb ending in '-ate' can be coverted into a Spanish infinitive by replacing the final '-ate' with '-ar'. • Operate = operarParticipate = participar • Many English verbs ending in VOWEL + CONSONANT + Tcan be converted into Spanish verbs by adding '-ar' or '-ir' to the end of the English verb. present = presentar represent = representarcomment= comentar insult = insultar
Los cognados: Verbs II • Many English infinitive verbs ending VOWEL + CONSONANT + Ecan be converted into Spanish infinitive verbs by dropping the final E and adding '-ar'. • Excuse = excusaradmire = admiraradore =adorar • Almost every English infinitive verb ending with '-ify' can be converted into a Spanish verb by replacing the final '-ify' with '-ificar'. Justify = justificar pacify = pacificar verify = verificar
Los cognados: Adverbs • In English, "-ly" combines with many adjectives to form adverbs. • In Spanish, "-mente" combines with (feminine) adjectives to form Spanish adverbs. • Absolutelyabsolutamente • Normally normalmente • Naturallynaturalmente • Finally finalmente • Correctly correctamente • exactlyexactamente • Evidently evidentemente • Difficultlydifícilmente
Structure: Nouns(singular and plural) • A noun is a word that represents a person, place, thing or concept. • To make most nouns plural in Spanish, add an “s” if the word ends in a vowel (a, e, i, o, u). • If a word ends in a consonant (any letter other that a,e,i,o,u), add an “es.” • If a noun (or adjective) ends with the letter “z,” the “z” becomes a “c” when plural and you add an “es”. Lápiz = lápices. • Examples: • El coche = los coches • El árbol = los árboles • La actriz = lasactrices
StructureSubjectPronouns • Thesubjectistheperson, place, thingorideathatDOEStheverb. • Subjectpronounsare wordsusedtorepresentthesubject in a sentence. • Subjectpronounsinclude: I, you, he, she, it, we, they. • In Spanish, thesepronouns are: I = Yo You = Tú He = Él /She = Ella /You (formal) = Usted We = NosotrosorNosotras They = EllosorEllas /Youall = Ustedes
StructureVerbs: TO BE • TheverbsSER and ESTARboth mean “tobe” in English. • SER = Soy / Eres / Es / Somos / Son • ESTAR = Estoy / Estás / Está / Estamos / Están • I am = Soy / EstoyWe are = Somos / Estamos • You are = Eres / EstásThey are = Son / Están • He / she / it is = Es / Está • Thetrickypartistoknowwhenyoushould use one and nottheother. • The general rule of use is: • Use SERfor more permanentorlastingqualities and ESTARfor more temporaryconditions. Howyoufeel and whereyou are, always use theverb ESTAR.
StructureArticles • Articles are adjectivesthathelptoidentifynouns. In English, wehave1 definitearticle, THE, whichreferstospecificthings (theboy, theidiot). • Wealsohaveindefinitearticles, A and AN, whichrefertoone of thosethingsin general (aboy, anidiot). • Here are theSpanishdefinitearticles. • El coche La puerta • Los coches Las puertas • Indefinitearticlesalsohave 4 forms, onetocorrespondtothegender and number of thenountheymodify • Un libro Una persona • Unos libros Unas personas • Theseadjectives are differentbecausethey are in front!
Structure -AdjectivesGenderAgreement • Anadjectiveis a wordthat describes a noun. Good = bueno • Spanishadjectivesgenerallyfollowthenounsthattheymodify. El coche rojo. • Nounsthatend in “O” are masculine and mostnounsthatend in “A” are feminine. THIS IS IMPORTANT for AGREEMENT • Spanishadjectivesmustagreein GENDER and in NUMBERwiththenounstheymodify. • Mostadjectives can bespelled4differentways in Spanish: • Bueno Bueno, buena, buenos, buenas. • Theyall mean the SAME thing. • Someadjectivesthatend in “E” can onlybemade plural byaddingan “S”