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AMINO ACID AND PROTEIN . Lelly Yuniarti, S.Si., M.Kes. Learning Objective. SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVE At the end of the session the student should be able to explain: Structures of amino acids Function of protein Peptides and proteins Classification of protein

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amino acid and protein

AMINO ACID AND PROTEIN

Lelly Yuniarti, S.Si., M.Kes

Amino Acid and Protein

learning objective
Learning Objective

SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVE

At the end of the session the student should be able to explain:

  • Structures of amino acids
  • Function of protein
  • Peptides and proteins
  • Classification of protein
  • Nature of Protein and Amino acid
  • Denaturation of protein

Amino Acid and Protein

i amino acid
I .AMINO ACID

Amino acids are fundamental units of proteins.

Amino Acid and Protein

continued
continued

Amino Acid and Protein

essential amino acid
Essential Amino Acid

Amino Acid and Protein

slide9

Structure of the α-Amino Acids

  • All proteins are polymers, and the monomers combine are α-Amino Acids.
  • A representative α-Amino Acids, e.g.. valine is shown in figure:

Amino Acid and Protein

a composition

H

O

R – C – C

OH

NH2

A. Composition
  • The amino group are attached to the -carbon, the carbon next to the carboxyl group, hence the name -amino acids.
  • To the -carbon of every amino acid are also attached a hydrogen atom and side chains (R).
  • Their different side chains distinguish different -amino acids.
  • We can write the general structure for an -amino acid in next figure:

Amino Acid and Protein

slide12

The complete structures of these amino acids are shown in next slide (slide no.9).

  • Only 20 -amino acids used by cells when they synthesize protein.
  • Hydroxyproline, present mainly in collagen, is synthesized from proline, and cystine, present in most proteins, is synthesized from cysteine.

Amino Acid and Protein

figure 5 3 the amino acids found in proteins
Figure 5.3: The amino acids found in proteins

Below each amino

acid are its name.

Its three-letter

abbreviation, and

its one-letter

abbreviation

continued

Amino Acid and Protein

continued from figure 5 3 the amino acids found in proteins
Continued from Figure 5.3: The amino acids found in proteins

continued

Amino Acid and Protein

slide15

Continued from Figure 5.3: The amino acids found in proteins

continued

Amino Acid and Protein

slide16

Continued from Figure 5.3: The amino acids found in proteins

Amino Acid and Protein

the taste map on the tongue
The taste map on the tongue

Expire

Amino Acid and Protein

b amphoteric properties

H

O

R – C – C

O–

NH2

H

O

R – C – C

OH

NH3+

H

O

R – C – C

O–

NH3+

OH–

OH–

Anionic form charge -1

pH IEP

Zwitter ion form charge 0

pH IEP

Cationic form charge +1

pH IEP

H+

H+

B. Amphoteric properties
  • Amino acids are amphoteric molecules ; that is, they have both basic and acidic groups
  • Monoamino-monocarboxylic acids exist in solution neutral pH are predominantly dipolar ions (or zwitter ion). In dipolar form of an amino acid, the amino group is protonated and positively charged (-NH3+) and the carboxyl group is dissociated and negatively charged (-COO-)

Amino Acid and Protein

continued

slide19

At low pH, the carboxyl group accepts a proton and becomes uncharged, so that the overall charge on the molecule is positive

  • At high pH, the amino group loses its proton and becomes uncharged; thus, the overall charge on the molecule is negative

Amino Acid and Protein

c stereochemistry of the amino acids
C. Stereochemistry of the α-amino acids
  • The -carbon of amino acids are formed an asymmetric molecule, the  -carbon is said to be chiral or stereocenter or also called an asymmetric carbon.
  • The important fact that all of the amino acids incorporated by organisms into proteins are of the L-form, with the exception of glycine
  • D-isomers of amino acids exist in nature, and some play important biochemical roles but they are never found in proteins.

Amino Acid and Protein