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Strategy & Tactics. Definitions. Strategy - the science and art of employing all available forces in as effective a manner as possible to achieve a successful resolution Tactics - the methods and concepts used to accomplish particular missions

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Presentation Transcript
definitions
Definitions

Strategy - the science and art of employing all available forces in as effective a manner as possible to achieve a successful resolution

Tactics - the methods and concepts used to accomplish particular missions

In law enforcement terms, strategy is to tactics as policy is to procedure

Techniques - procedures for performing specific tasks or functions

Techniques almost always involve the employment or utilization of a weapon or piece of equipment.

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Strategies confront a situation as a whole

All strategies will require setting priorities and accepting compromises

Synchronization refers to the arrangement of all activities in time, space and purpose to produce maximum results

This unity of effort, must come from the top and is called “Command Guidance”

Strategy

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Strategies are always one of two types, but both are commonly employed at different times in the same operation

Symmetric

Asymmetric

Strategy

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symmetric strategies
Symmetric Strategies

Attempts to match, or rather overmatch, an adversary’s strengths

Adherents are understandably zealous in demanding increased firepower

Lacking overwhelming strength, they are have two shortcomings

Can easily lead to “wars of attrition”

Leave little or no roomfor error

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asymmetric strategies
Asymmetric Strategies

Attempts to apply strength against a weakness

Especially advantageous in offsetting technological or firepower advantages

Ingenuity is often the critical factor

Works by employing any of the following:

Dissimilar techniques, technologies, or other capabilities

Using surprise

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force multipliers
Force Multipliers

Anything that increases the amount of force that can be applied

May be tangible, as in better weapons or equipment, or some terrain advantage

May be intangible, as in better training, better leadership or higher morale

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threats
Threats

Never underestimate the power of a credible threat

Two types of threats

Explicit - the consequences of defiance are made known

Implied - the consequences of defiance are left to the imagination of the adversary

Implied threat is always more powerful

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tactical dilemma
Tactical Dilemma

Dilemma creates a choice between two or more disagreeable alternatives

Goal of every adversarial operation is to place the suspect in a position where surrender is likely, but resistance is futile

Dilemmas can be created with space or time

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dilemmas using space
Dilemmas using Space

Five ways of using space to create a tactical dilemma

Crossfire - Subjects suspect to fire whether he stays or moves (most common method)

Chemical Agents- makes space uninhabitable

Deceptive Diversion- creates a misleading assumption

Combined Arms- more than one weapons system, (shortcomings of one offset by another)

Deprive the Value of the Space- Dependent upon how suspect is using the space (concealment - light, observation - smoke, etc.)

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dilemmas using time
Dilemmas Using Time

Three ways of using time to create a tactical dilemma

Surprise - striking at unexpected place or time, or in an unanticipated manner

Physiological Diversion- overwhelms body’s environmental adaptation system (flashbang most common)

Tactics - overwhelms suspects’ ability to effectively resist

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tactics
Tactics

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Tactics is not whether you go left or right.Tactics is why you go left or right.

Good tactics not only leave your adversary defeated, but confused!

tactics1
Tactics

Most police operations against an adversary use one of three tactics.

Hammer and Anvil

Envelopment

Pincer

Even a rudimentary understanding of why they work provides great insight into the selection and adaptation to specific situations

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hammer and anvil
Hammer and Anvil

One of the oldest recorded tactical maneuvers

Often called “block and sweep” operations in Vietnam

Uses a stationary force in place (anvil) and a mobile force (hammer) moving toward it with the suspect(s) caught between

In law enforcement operations, perimeter containment is the “anvil,” and the entry team is the “hammer.”

Sometimes terrain features (barriers) can be used as the anvil

Advantages are that it is simple to implement but because overwhelming force is the primary factor, a disadvantage is that it requires a substantial amount of personnel and/or firepower

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Hammer and Anvil

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envelopment
Envelopment

Another old tactic that dates back at least 2,000 years!

Basic concept is to apply strength against weakness

Attempts to fix adversary’s attention on one area while the main force exploits a weakness in another area

Avoids the “front,” which is usually more heavily guarded, and strikes from one of the flanks

Law enforcement frequently uses this method on suspects in buildings after refusal to answer “knock and notice”

The advantage of an envelopment is that it requires less personnel, but because of the high degree of necessary coordination, requires more extensive and detailed planning

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Envelopment

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pincer
Pincer

Fundamentally, a variation of an envelopment

Works by employing two moving forces closing toward each other with the adversary caught between

Law enforcement frequently uses this method on foot pursuits

The advantage of a pincer movement is that it is quick to set up, but it has several disadvantages:

Difficult to coordinate because keeping track of everyone is nearly impossible

Broken terrain makes it difficult to ensure all avenues of escape are covered because there is no containment

Shifting gun-target lines creates potential friendly fire problems

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pincer1
Pincer

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