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Multicast Colin Whittaker INEX Members Meeting Tuesday 6 th February 2007 PowerPoint Presentation
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Multicast Colin Whittaker INEX Members Meeting Tuesday 6 th February 2007. All About Me. Senior Network Engineer in Network Development Previously with HEAnet & Internet Ireland Responsible for all areas of Network Design and Planning

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slide1

Multicast

Colin Whittaker

INEX Members Meeting

Tuesday 6th February 2007

all about me
All About Me
  • Senior Network Engineer in Network Development
  • Previously with HEAnet & Internet Ireland
  • Responsible for all areas of Network Design and Planning
  • Responsible for fixing it when the plan doesn’t come together
  • All opinions are my own and not Magnet Networks
magnet networks
Magnet Networks
  • Magnet Networks part of Columbia Ventures Corporation
  • Private Investment Company
  • Telecoms Assets in UK / USA / Australia
columbia ventures corporation

CVC – Investments

Columbia Ventures Corporation –

Privately held investment company

(Ireland)

(Ireland)

(United States)

(United States)

(Australia)

(United States)

(UK)

(United States)

(United States)

(United States)

(United States)

magnet networks1
Magnet Networks
  • Magnet Networks started September 2004
  • FTTH launched December 2004
  • Acquired LEAP in mid 2005
  • LLU launch in September 2005
  • Acquired Netsource in 2006
  • Two Brands – Magnet Entertainment = Residential
  • –Magnet Business = Corporate
agenda
Agenda
  • Tech Primer
  • Drivers
  • Challenges
agenda1
Agenda
  • Drivers
  • Tech Primer
  • Challenges
iptv key driver
IPTV Key Driver
  • NRENs have deployed already
  • Large Internal deployments:
  • Financial and Content Provider segments.
  • Business Users will demand support in VPN offerings.
  • IPTV is driving Multicast to the end user
  • Walled Garden - Magnet / Vodafone & Sky
  • Public - BBC
iptv key driver1
IPTV key driver
  • How much bandwidth:
  • Sky Digital via satellite: MPEG2 4 – 10Mbit/s
  • SD MPEG 2 @ 4Mbit/s is a tight fit
  • SD MPEG 4 @ 2 – 3Mbit/s is expected to be the norm
  • HD MPEG 4 @ 10 – 20Mbit/s is required to maintain quality
agenda2
Agenda
  • Drivers
  • Tech Primer
  • Challenges
unicast
Unicast
  • One to One communications
  • Got us where we are today
  • Has scaling challenges as number of sessions grows
  • 10x increase in Users means 10x the traffic volume
broadcast
Broadcast
  • One to All
  • Just like a sprinkler system
  • Data goes to all Nodes if they want it or not.
  • Wasted capacity
multicast
Multicast
  • Some to Some
  • One to Many
  • The Middle ground between Unicast and Broadcast
  • Replicate as close to the User as possible
  • Bandwidth only used once and only when needed.
multicast asm
Multicast - ASM
  • Any Source Mulitcast (1990)
  • Sources send to multicast groups
  • Receivers join group and receive from any source
  • Supports Some to Some and One to Many
  • Group ID’s are global (limited addresses)
  • Anyone can DOS your group
multicast ssm
Multicast - SSM
  • Source Specific Mulitcast (2000)
  • Sources send to multicast groups
  • Receivers join group and source
  • Group ID’s are based on the source as well as the group
  • Receivers only see traffic from specific source
multicast protocols
Multicast - Protocols
  • PIM-SM (sparse mode – forward on request)
  • MSDP / Anycast-RP for redundancy
  • AutoRP & BSR have too many moving parts
  • MSDP for interdomain support
  • Multiprotocol BGP for interdomain RPF selection
  • Well understood toolbox
multicast protocols1
Multicast - Protocols
  • That’s the Router to Router stuff, now for the LAN
  • IGMP
  • v2 and v3
  • v3 needed for SSM
  • IGMP snooping required in switches
  • IGMP v3 not widely deployed
multicast group id
Multicast – Group ID
  • 224.0.0.0/4
  • 224.0.0.0/24 – link local (OSPF)
  • 239.0.0.0/8 – admin scoped
  • 233.0.0.0/8 – GLOP – encode as into middle two octets
  • 232.0.00/8 – SSM range
multicast mac addr
Multicast – MAC addr
  • Half an OUI reserved for multicast
  • Steve Deering requested 16 OUIs but only given half of one
  • 23bits of MAC to contain 28bit of group ID
  • Leads to 32:1 overlap
  • Be careful not to overlap with special group id’s
multicast tricks
Multicast – Tricks
  • Static Joins
  • Fast Leave
  • Bidir
  • PIM Snooping
channel zapping
Channel Zapping
  • Perceived slowness when changing channel
  • Single channel join <100msec
  • For common channels number of hops required is low
  • GOP much bigger impact.
  • WM9 GOP = 3sec
  • Sky / Magnet = .5sec
  • Iframe caching if >.5sec
agenda3
Agenda
  • Drivers
  • Tech Primer
  • Challenges
access networks
Access Networks
  • Easy enough to deploy in Backbone and Data centre
  • How about to end users
slide29
DSL
  • Most DSL users reached via PPPoE / L2TP
  • Have to replicate at BRAS
  • Need to send multiple copies into the access network
  • Cost of bitstream access a concern
  • Do get benefit of bandwidth saving in the backbone
  • UK ISPs found this helpful in BBC deployments
slide30
DSL
  • Two Solutions
  • Multiple PVC’s to the customer
  • One for PPPoE
  • Second for Video
  • Run IP all the way to the DSLAM and let it do the replication
  • Both require Control of the Access Network
wireless
Wireless
  • Many wireless devices do not understand multicast.
  • In many cases a separate copy is sent to each reciever
  • Video suffers from timing issues
wireless @home
Wireless @home
  • Customers have come to love WiFi
  • Customers do not want to have to run new cabling
  • Some solutions available for home networking
  • 99% of them cannot do multicast
  • CPE vendors slowly moving to support Multicast
agenda4
Agenda
  • Drivers
  • Tech Primer
  • Challenges
slide34
P2P
  • Working around the lack of efficient distribution
  • Bitorrent
  • 20GBtye HD movie via Bitorrent
  • Joost
  • TV on demand via P2P
slide35
VOD
  • TV is our killer app but …
  • TV is moving to on demand
  • Sky Plus / Tivo …
  • VOD traffic will dwarf current traffic
support
Support
  • It is backwards to “normal” IP
  • In multicast trouble shooting starts at the receiver
  • Step by Step back to source
  • Not as field hardened as unicast
  • “All Customers TVs stop working after 3 minutes”
further reading
Further Reading
  • John Lyons – IP Multicast “The Good, the Bad & the Ugly”
  • Toerless Eckert – “IP Multicast/Multipoint for IPTV (and beyond)”
  • Developing IP Multicast – Beau Williamson
  • Inter-domain IP Multicast – Edwards, Guiliano, Wright
  • Internet 2