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Marks – Achievement – Transition. “The reason, we worry about a thing is not in itself, it is in the idea, we have got about the thing!” (Epiktet).

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marks achievement transition

Marks – Achievement – Transition

“The reason, we worry about a thing is not in itself, it is in the idea, we have got about the thing!” (Epiktet)

slide2
In Europe, a lot of testing exists at the border from Primary to Secondary School. Sometimes a special grade of a testing-scale, sometimes a special mark decides whether the pupil is allowed to attend a special Secondary or whether it is not allowed to change to Secondary at all. The opinion, that it is possible to compare achievement within a class or a group of pupil, is justified by the system. But it is only a comparison of numbers and a sorting out of children, it does not tell anything about the personal achievement of the individual child – the person becomes a number.
slide3
reference standard (RST)intraindividual RST (I-RST), the interindividual RST (S-RST) or the curriculum RST

Advantages of judgement with intraindividual reference standards (IRST):

  • o      The increase of individual performance become visible for the pupils.
  • o      Missing learning performances can be explained with readiness lacking as individual effort. The effect is the causal-attribution of individual performance.
  • o      The I-RST makes positive feed back possible, even if a mark in S-RST is negative.
  • o      The self-concept, the motivation, the interest in lessons, the feedback of children, …… rises on a higher level.
what pupil have to knew if the i rst is followed by s rst
What pupil have to knew, if the I-RST is followed by S-RST?

For a stable situation series of factors should be clear:

  • How is the reference standard, which is in use.
  • What methods of help (aids) are allowed?
  • What are the aims of that control, test, ….?
  • Which type and what number auf examples is to be expected?
  • Which information’s are necessary to find the solution?
  • How is the solving of problems evaluated – how is the measurement?
  • Which mark is to be expected at which number of solutions?

Usually these items are different in Primary and Secondary. So the teacher of Primary and Secondary has to discuss it to find a co-operative way of transition. ?

practical examples
1. Test – selection:

There should be six tests in language and mathematics during one year. Pupils know the goal of each test at the beginning of the year. They know the week in which the test is planned. Now they can select four of the test, two tests becomes sorted out. If pupils want, they can write all six, but it does not make any difference if they sort out two at the beginning. If they did all six tests, only the four best ones count for the mark at the end.

2. Test-week:

A week (not only one day) is the time to write a test. The teacher recommends a “test day” – but if there is a pupil, who wants to write the test on another day (earlier or later) it is possible. The reason that for is personnel – pupils have not to tell the teacher why they shift the test – they only tell him, that they want to write it on another day. In this example, we saw, that some fail-oriented children needed help at the beginning: not to take the last possible day, not to say “I am anxious now – I’ll write the next test,” ….. In general this two systems brought a really anxious-free situation.

Practical Examples:
slide7
Children need a performance-referred self-concept at the border from Primary to Secondary. This self-concept does not correlate with IQ and/or marks in school – it is an individual indicator for:

o    high level of effort-industry

o    high effort-initiation and high cognitive engagement

low self-doubt and reduction of fair in perception in stressful situations.

demand for a school for all children and teachers
Demand for a school for all children and teachers

o      The school-concept needs space for children and teacher justified in the environment (world of live) of the children.

o      Learning, achievement and organization of school is done co-operative and not in concurrency.

o      The organization of learning environments take consideration of the needs of children – school becomes the “world of children” and not “the world of teachers”.

o      The curriculum is adapted individually and to special needs-education (if necessary).

o      Non-standard learning supplies consider the special development prerequisites of children.

o      A mentoring system (including children as mentors) is organized for remedial service.

o      Self-organized open learning is possible.

o      Performance reports are done as development reports, which consider different forms of the performance collection (tests, marks, Portfolio, …)

There are special forms of feed back for monitoring the personal development for each child.