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Wetlands/Swamps. Wetlands/ Swamps. By: Steven Wilber & Danielle Hollenbeck. By Steven Wilber & Danielle Hollenbeck. Types of Wetlands. Freshwater Wetlands. Saltwater Wetlands. Estuaries. Bogs Marshes Swamps. Effects of Latitude and Altitude. Latitude. Altitude.

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Wetlands swamps


Wetlands/ Swamps

By: Steven Wilber


Danielle Hollenbeck

By Steven Wilber & Danielle Hollenbeck

Types of wetlands
Types of Wetlands

Freshwater Wetlands

Saltwater Wetlands


  • Bogs

  • Marshes

  • Swamps

Effects of latitude and altitude
Effects of Latitude and Altitude



The higher up in the atmosphere something is locate, the cooler the air.

Less vegetation with higher altitude.

Proximity to a mountain creates a rain shadow effect on the leeward side.

  • The higher the latitude, or distance from equator, the cooler the temperature.

  • Higher latitudes receive less direct sunlight than lower altitudes.

  • More defined seasons the further away from the equator but less defined closer to the poles.


  • Wetlands in the south are host to species that do not inhabit similar wetlands in the north.

  • Wetlands exist where soil is saturated for much of the year.

  • Therefore wetlands depend on: location, location, location.

Biotic and abiotic features
Biotic and Abiotic Features



Non-living components of the ecosystem:






  • Living components of the ecosystem:

    • Flowers

    • Bacteria

    • Herons

    • Muskrats

    • Snakes

    • Turtles

    • Salamanders

    • Etc.

Wetland swamp trophic levels
Wetland/Swamp Trophic Levels

  • Trophic Levels

    • 1st is primary producers

      • Plant life

    • 2nd is First-level consumers

      • Herbivores

    • 3rd is Second-level consumers

      • Carnivores

    • 4th is Third-level consumers

      • Carnivores and omnivores

Water cycle
Water Cycle

  • Wetlands collect and hold floodwater, then slowly release them.

  • Soils purify water

  • Critical in regulating the movement of water.

Nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle

  • Wetlands contain nitrogen fixing bacteria

  • The bacteria fixes and releases nitrogen back into the atmosphere

  • An equilibrium is reached between nitrogen in the atmosphere, soil, and water.

Phosphorus cycle
Phosphorus Cycle

  • Phosphorus is distributed in wetland water.

  • Removed by plants and soil microbes

  • Absorbed quickly in watershed soils.

Carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle

  • Wetlands affect carbon in the atmosphere in two ways:

    • 1) They are carbon reservoirs

    • The carbon is released when the water level lowers

    • 2) Take CO2 out of the atmosphere through photosynthesis by wetland plants

    • Wetlands also release CO2

Wetland plants
Wetland Plants







Cover for many wetland species

  • Food source for ducks and foul

  • Floats on the water surface

    • Is not rooted to the bottom

Wetland animals
Wetland Animals


Great Blue Heron

Control fish and insect populations

Important food source for predators

  • Abundant in wetland marshes

  • Important prey animals

  • Graze on vegetation

  • Therefore influence local plant growth

Limiting factors
Limiting Factors

  • Limiting Factors

    • Rainfall

    • Species Diversity

    • Phosphorus

    • Chemical Runoff

    • Depletion of diversity

    • Climate

    • Predation

Wetland resources
Wetland Resources

Ecological Resources

Economic Resources

Restore water quality

Reduce flood risks

Provide wildlife

Reduce erosion


Maintain water flow during drought


  • Wildlife

  • Plant life

  • Bacteria

  • Soil

    • Filtration

  • Phosphorous

  • Nitrates

  • Etc.

Effects of humans
Effects of Humans



Increased erosion

Alter soil composition

Increased sediments

Water level fluctuation

Alters nutrient input and recycling

Phosphorus runoff

Upsets chemical balance of water

  • Home development

  • Filling

  • Clearing of vegetation

  • Change in drainage patterns

  • Pollutants and increased sediments

  • Agriculture

Wetland protection laws
Wetland Protection Laws



Regulates discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters

Government protection and restoration act

Prevents degradation of our natural resources

Protection of Wetland resources

  • Clean Water Act

  • Coastal Zone Management Act

  • National Environmental Policy Act

  • Massachusetts Wetlands Protection Act