GUNGAHLIN COLLEGE Human Movement SPORTS INJURIES INTRODUCTION TO SPORTS INJURIES
Sports Injuries • What does the term injury mean? • “An injury is the breakdown or disruption of a tissue, or tissues, as a result of being overloaded, or affected by a disease process” – Smart Sport When considering an injury sports medicine professionals will attempt to define the: • Mechanisms/classification of the injury and the factors that cause the injury. • Tissues involved. • Rate of onset of the injury. • Injury process involved
Prevention of Sports Injuries How can athletes prevent injuries? • Adequate warm-up and warm-down • Pre and post exercise stretching • Taping and bracing joints • Ensuring they are fit to play sport • Using appropriate protective and sport specific equipment • Building adequate recovery into their training program • Ensuring they adhere to the rules of the sport • Treating all injuries appropriately
Physical Preparation/ Protective Equipment • Skill • Technique • Flexibility • Endurance • Strength • Sport specific requirements • Warm-up • Cool Down • Protective guards • Apparel • Playing equipment
Sports Policy • Responsibilities of the club, school, coach, administrator, sports trainers, rules of the sport (modified for children), physically balanced competition. Sports Environment • Grounds • Facilities
Taping and Bandaging • Preventative Taping • Taping for an injury
Classification of Sports Injuries • Injuries occur more frequently in contact sports such as football. • May be the result of overuse. • Usually classified according to their cause or type of tissue injured • Cause: Divided into Primary and Secondary Injuries Primary (initial) • Direct • Indirect • Overuse Secondary • Short Term • Long Term • Type of Tissue: Soft/Hard/Special Tissue
PRIMARY Direct (Extrinsic) Injury • Caused by forces generated from outside the body. Eg. Collision with another athlete or struck by equipment. • Direct injuries result in • Fractures, • Dislocations, • Sprains • Bruises.
Indirect (Intrinsic) Injury • Caused by a force within the body. Damageis often caused during eccentric loading of a muscle Occur as a result of: • Inadequate warm-up • Ballistic movements • Excessive strain on muscles and tendons • Examples: internal tears and ruptures of muscles and tendons (strains)
OVERUSE INJURIES • Result from intense or unreasonable use of joints or body areas. Continual repetitive damage without adequate time for repair. • Provoked by repetitive, low-impact exercise such as jogging or stepping. Caused by poor technique, inappropriate equipment, muscle imbalances or excessive loading
Cause pain and inflammation around the site of the injury. • Examples: • Osgood-Schlatter’s (Tibial Tuberosity), Stress Fractures, Tendonitis (Irritation of tendons. E.g. in the Achilles tendon in the heel), Iliotibial Band Syndrome, Anterior shin splints (Irritation to the front portion of the shinbone)
SECONDARY Short Term • An injury that follows a primary injury which has been mismanaged. • Due to returning to full exercise too early and causing a “re-injury” at the previously injured site. • Common examples include muscle strains and tears and undiagnosed stress fractures.
SECONDARY Long Term • Occurs in situations where a long term injury can lead to other degenerative problems. • Example; Degenerative knee osteoarthritis as a result of cruciate ligament rupture or meniscal damage.
SOFT TISSUE INJURIES • Includes damage to: • Tendons, Muscles, Ligaments, Cartilage, Skin, Blood Vessels, Organs Acute – occurring suddenly • are usually the result of a single, traumatic event (macrotrauma) Chronic – occur over a prolonged period of time. • Chronic soft tissue injuries necessitate a long rehabilitation due to their severity.
HARD TISSUE INJURIES • Hard tissue injuries cause damage to bones and teeth. • Frequently more serious than soft tissue injuries. • Examples: • Fracturing a bone (most common) • Due to its structural support role, hard tissue that has been injured must be carefully examined and cared for.
Special Tissue/Organ Injuries • Brain, nerves • Eyes, nose, larynx, teeth • Thoracic, abdominal, pelvic organs