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ANIMALS Structure and Function Unifying Themes in Animal Anatomy and Physiology There is a correlation between form and function. The comparative approach allows us to see how species of diverse evolutionary history and varying complexity solve problems common to all.

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Structure and Function

unifying themes in animal anatomy and physiology
Unifying Themes in Animal Anatomy and Physiology
  • There is a correlation between form and function.
  • The comparative approach allows us to see how species of diverse evolutionary history and varying complexity solve problems common to all.
  • Animals have the capacity to respond and adjust to to environmental change in two temporal scales.
    • Long term adaptation.
    • Short term – physiologic responses.


  • Four types of tissue
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Nerve
    • Muscle

Groups of Cells With Common Structures and Functions

  • Form- sheets of tightly packed cells
  • Function – cover the outside of body, line organs and body cavities
  • Categorized by the number and shape of the free surface cells
    • Simple – one layer of cells
    • Stratified – multiple layers of cells
    • Psuedostratified – one layer but appears to be multilayer because cells are different lengths
    • Cell shape – cubodial, columnar or squamous
some tissues are specialized in absorption or secretion
Some Tissues Are Specialized in Absorption or Secretion
  • Some ciliated – lining of respiratory system
  • Some are mucous membranes – line nasal and oral cavity
  • Structure fits forms
    • Example: simple squamous epithelium is leaky and specialized for diffusion
connective tissue
Connective Tissue
  • Form -characterized by a sparse cell population scattered through an extensive extracellular matrix
  • Function – to bind and support tissue
  • Three types
    • Collagen – tensile strength (resists stretching)
    • Elastic fibers – long thread s of protein
    • Reticular fibers – prolonged to form connections to adjacent tissue
types of connective tissue
Types of Connective Tissue
  • Loose connective tissue ( has all three types of fibers)
  • Adipose tissue – fat storage (each cell has one large fat droplet)
  • Fibrous connective tissue- tendons and ligaments
types of connective tissue9
Types of Connective Tissue
  • Cartilage – skeleton of all vertebrate embryos
  • Bone - mineralized
  • Blood – composed of plasma, leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets ( made in the marrow)
nerve tissue
Nerve Tissue
  • Form – neurons that are specialized to conduct an impulse of bioelectric signal
  • Function – senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of the animal to another
muscle tissue
Muscle Tissue
  • Form – parallel bundles of
  • microfilaments made of the contractile proteins, actin and mycin
  • Funtion - long excitable cells capable of contraction
  • Most abundant tissue in most animals
  • Three types of muscle
types of muscle
Types of Muscle
  • Striated – responsible for voluntary movements.
  • Cardiac – forms the contractile wall of heart.
  • Smooth – unstriated and is found in walls of organs and is responsible for involuntary movement.
Systems are interdependent: an organism is a living whole greater than the sum of its parts.
animals have a range of metabolic rates
Animals Have a Range of Metabolic Rates
  • Minimum – support basic life functions
  • Maximal – occur during peak activity
  • Determined by measuring
    • Oxygen used for cellular respiration
    • Heat loss per unit of time
  • Metabolic rate per gram is INVERSELY related to body size among similar animals

Generate own body heat

Require more kilocalories than ectotherms

Many are homeothermic

Bird and mammals


1600-1800 kcal/day – men

1300-1500 kcal./Day-women


Acquire most of body heat from environment

Include fish, amphibians, reptiles and invertebrates

SMR (standard metabolic rates) must be determined at a specific temperature

fuel management
  • Monomers of any complex organic molecule can be used for fuel. CH2O and fats are used first.
  • Oxidation of fat liberates 9.5 kcal/gram (twice that of CH2O or protein)
  • Excess food taken in is stored as
    • Glycogen in the liver and muscles
    • Fat in adipose tissue
when the diet is deficient in calories
Glycogen is used first


Body protein (results in muscle atrophy and can even result in consumption of brain proteins)

When the diet is deficient in calories

Diet must supply carbon and nitrogen necessary for biosynthesis of other organic molecules.

Essential amino acids are those that must be obtained from the diet.
  • Human adults can synthesis 12 of the 20 amino acids.
  • Protein deficiency results when the diet lacks one or more of the amino acids.
  • Humans can not store amino acids therefore a deficiency results in the retardation of protein synthesis
other essential nutrients
Other Essential Nutrients
  • Essential fatty acids – unsaturated fatty acids that can not be produced by the body – usually not a problem
  • Vitamins
feeding adaptations
Feeding Adaptations
  • Suspension feeders – sift small particles from water
    • Clams, oysters, baleen whales
  • Substrate feeders-live in or on food and eat through it
    • Leaf miners
  • Deposit feeders-ingest partially decayed organic materials with substrate
    • Earthworms
  • Fluid feeders-suck nutrient rich fluid from a living host
    • Tick, aphids, leech, hummingbirds, bees
  • Bulk feeders – eat relatively large pieces of food
Intracellular – vacuoles
    • Sponge – only intracellular digestion
  • Extracellular – occurs within compartments that are continuous with the outside of the body
    • Simple body plan – gastrovascular cavity
    • Complete digestive track or alimentary canal
four main stages of
Four Main Stages of
  • Ingestion
  • Digestion
    • Enzymatic digestion cleaves into monomers
    • Mechanical fragmentation
  • Absorption
  • elimination