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«Insomnia in the Access ». Marco Canini EPFL. Or How to Curb Access Network Related Energy Consumption. Joint work with.

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insomnia in the access

«Insomnia in the Access»

Marco CaniniEPFL

Or How to Curb Access Network Related Energy Consumption

Joint work with

Eduard Goma, Alberto Lopez Toledo, Nikolaos Laoutaris (Telefonica Research), Dejan Kostić (EPFL), Pablo Rodriguez (Telefonica Research),RadeStanojević(IMDEA Networks), Pablo YagüeValentín(Telefonica Research)

greening the ict
Greening the ICT

?

Datacenters

PCs &peripherals

Backbone

Access network

energy consumption of telcos
Energy consumption of telcos

2.1 TWh

4.5 TWh

3.7 TWh

9.9 TWh

access dominates energy consumption
Access dominates energy consumption

Backbone/Metro/Transport

ACCESS

a typical dsl access network
A typical DSL access network

ACCESS

ISP PART

USER PART

METRO

CORE

Gateway

a typical dsl access network1
A typical DSL access network

ACCESS

ISP PART

USER PART

METRO

CORE

Gateway

Cable bundle

DSL Access Multiplexers(DSLAMs)

Central Office

slide8

Can we save energy?

How?

Challenges in greening the access

Two practical techniques can save of the access energy …

With a performance bonus

1 huge number of devices

Individually, they do not consume a lot

#1: Huge number of devices

But collectively …

2 orders of magnitude more gateways than DSLAMs

1 order of magnitude moreDSLAMs than metro devices

2 orders of magnitude moreDSLAMs than backbone devices

PhotoBlackburn

2 high per bit energy consumption
2#: High per bit energy consumption

Backbone/Metro

ACCESS

010

101101001001

010

101101001001

At full load, access devices 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than metro/backbone

3 utilization 10
3#: Utilization < 10%

Already bad here

… but most of the time here

sleeping saves energy
Sleeping saves energy

ZZZ

Sleep-on-Idle (SoI)Devices enter sleep mode upon periods of inactivity

soi fails in access networks
SoI fails in access networks

ACCESS

ISP PART

USER PART

METRO

An ADSL line needs 1 minute to wake up… but cannot enjoy a minute’s sleep

what if we can put 80 of gateways to sleep
What if we can put 80% of gateways to sleep?

100 W

15 W

ZZZ

1 W per modem

Save big fraction at the user side

ISPs … not so much

line cards very unlikely to sleep by soi
Line cards very unlikely to sleep by SoI

Line cards

Modem on

Modem off

Static assignment of lines to DSLAM ports is a problem

DSLAM

slide18

OUR APPROACH

  • Greening the user part: aggregation
  • Greening the ISP part: line switching
greening the user part aggregation
Greening the user part – Aggregation

?

Broadband Hitch-Hiking (BH2)

Threshold-based heuristic algorithm: direct traffic to neighbor gateways during light traffic conditions

?

?

?

On average 5-6 WiFi networks overlap in typical urban settings

broadband hitch hiking bh 2
Broadband Hitch-Hiking(BH2)

ZZZ

20%

15 W

ZZZ

ZZZ

5%

5%

0%

35%

30%

30%

45%

50%

25%

Load on home gateway is low  direct light traffic to a neighbor gateway and let home gateway sleep

Load on neighbor gateway is high  go back to home gateway

Load on neighbor gateway is low  look for another neighbor or go back to home gateway

bh 2 under the hood
BH2 under the hood
  • Gateways assumed to have:
  • SoI
  • Ability to wake on traffic
  • BH2 terminals use WiFi card virtualization:[Giustinianoet al., MobiCom ’10; Kandulaet al., NSDI ’08]
  • Estimate load on all gateways in range
  • Maintain connectivity with 1 or few backup gateways

Only modify the terminal wireless card driver

greening the isp part line switching
Greening the ISP part – Line switching

Line cards

Switching is for lines, not for packets

DSLAM

40-way switch

AT&T operators connecting transatlantic calls at the international switchboard in New York, circa 1930. (www.corp.att.com)

Full switching maximizes savings …but cost quickly grows with the number of ways

small 4 way switches are enough
Small 4-way switches are enough

4-way switches

Line cards

DSLAM

Put line cards to sleep

Each k-switch packs active lines to the top

Simple micro-electro-mechanical switches with near-zero power consumption

evaluation
Evaluation
  • Traces: CRAWDAD UCSD – 272 clients, 40 gateways
  • Scenario: 4 x 12-port line cards; 5.6 avg. gateways
  • Results for 4 schemes
  • Baseline: no sleep
    • Gateways, modems, line cards don’t sleep
    • Each terminal only connects to its home gateway
how many gateways can sleep
How many gateways can sleep?

Peak hours

Scheme 1: SoIfor gateways, modems & line cards

how many gateways can sleep1
How many gateways can sleep?

BH2 puts to sleep 70-90% of gateways

Scheme 2: BH2 + k-switchBH2every 150 s + 12 x 4-switches

how many gateways can sleep2
How many gateways can sleep?

Scheme 3: OptimalBest clients to gateways assignment + full switch

what is the impact of gateway density
What is the impact of gateway density?

Just home + 2 neighbors

50%+ of gateways sleep

how much energy can we save
How much energy can we save?

BH2 + k-switch saves 66%

Optimal savings are 80%

what are the savings for the isp
What are the savings for the ISP?

Scheme 4: SoI+ k-switchCombine switching with SoI

what are the savings for the isp1
What are the savings for the ISP?

Savings come from both aggregation and switching

what are the savings for the isp2
What are the savings for the ISP?

Savings come from both aggregation and switching

prototype deployment
Prototypedeployment

+

1st floor

2nd floor

3rd floor

Limitation: home gateway + 2 neighbor gateways per client

considerations for deployment
Considerations for deployment

Security

Privacy

Incentives

a performance bonus
A performance bonus

Bonus: reduced crosstalk

Powering off lines makes the remaining … go faster due to reduced crosstalk!

conclusions
Conclusions
  • 80% energy can be saved at the access
  • Aggregation + switching save 66% of energy
  • Surprising result: turning DSL modems off increases the performance of remaining modems
  • Applying our solution to all DSL users worldwide, yields savings of 33 TWh per year
    • ½ of energy going into US datacenters

Thank you!Questions?

  • Or the output of3 nuclear power plants