3.1 Political Parties- Major Eras Students will display work very differently. A Power point presentation is just one example.
Federalists and Democratic-Republican(1789-1828) Jefferson Hamilton • Federalist party emerged from those supporting Hamilton's policies (formation of a national bank, use of federal funds to repay states' war debts) and Democratic-Republicans emerged from those supporting Thomas Jefferson's (a more limited federal governmental role). • In the elections of 1800 the Federalists were defeated, then allowing the alternation of parties in political power. • Due to the overpowering success of Democratic-Republicans' such as Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe the Federalists ceased to exist by 1820.
Jackson Jacksonian Democrats and Whigs (1828-1860) • By the 1920's, the Democratic-Republicans had broken and split apart. • The Jacksonian Democrats appealed to the "common man" and successfully urged states to lower property requirements for voting and choose electors by popular vote instead of by the state legislatures. • The House unsuccessfully tried to pass over Andrew Jackson, the candidate with the most votes, to pick John Quincy Adams. • Andrew Jackson’s opponents during the 1828 election formed the Whig Party. Adams
Era of Republican Dominance (1860-1932) • During the Presidency of Lincoln, the slavery issue split the Democratic Party into Northern Democrats and Southern Democrats and led to the founding of the Republican Party in 1854. • After the war, the Republican Party won every election until 1932 with two exceptions. • After Roosevelt split the Republican party, it wasn’t until the 1920’s that they were able to get the White House back. • For the majority of this period the Democrats were a minority party, taking part in both Southern and Northern interest by opposing Republicans and consenting to policies of high tariffs to protect manufacturers and tight money in the form of a gold standard to protect bankers.
The New Deal Democratic Party(1932-1968) Roosevelt • The in 1929, the Great Depression brought Republican pro-business policies into disrepute and, together with WWII, led to the unprecedented four consecutive terms in office of Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt • FDR created the New Deal, which instituted Social Security and other "social safety net" programs for the poor, unemployed, Catholics, Jews, African-Americans, and other ethnic groups. • During this time, the hard-hit Southern Democrats, also known as Dixiecrats, did not start splitting from the Democratic Party until the party's 1948 platform called for an end to segregation.
The New Republican Majority(1968-1980) • The combination of the "solid South" into the Republican camp in presidential elections, a popular reaction against "big government" welfare and other programs in Johnson's Great Society, and a general conservative stand in opinion after Vietnam and the social turmoil of the 1960's, created a new Republican majority capable of defeating the New Deal coalition. • The Democratic Convention's 1968 reforms, opened party processes more to women and minorities, and led to a 1972 convention dominated by liberals who later nominated George McGovern. • With an obvious public opinion against the liberal causes of the 1960s,with which the Democratic Party had become closely associated, Richard Nixon defeated McGovern
The Reagan Coalition(1980-1992) Reagan • Ronald Reagan established the new Republican coalition of traditional business and professional supporters opposition to high taxes and "big government," • He was able to hold this diverse coalition together but was not able to lead the Republican Party to control of Congress. • At the same time the Democratic Party began to force liberal stands onto the Democratic party platform and be seen as a party of special interests, beholden to organized labor, civil rights organizations, feminists, and environmentalists
Clinton and the "New" Democrats(1992-2000) • By the 1990s, the Republican coalition was began to experience problems with the undermining of the anticommunist appeal, reaction against religious fundamentalism, and splits between economic conservatives and social conservatives. • Bill Clinton to embrace a "new" platform and led the Democrats who’s strategy was to downplay social justice and social welfare issues and to return to an emphasis on policies for restoring economic prosperity. • Environmentalists, feminists, civil rights activists, and other Democratic liberals, recognized the end of the 1980's and unanimously accepted the Clinton strategy. Clinton