A Church Divided • A French archbishop is chosen as Pope, Clement V • The pope moves from Rome to the city of Avignon in France (69 years)
A Church Divided • 1378 A.D., Pope Urban VI chosen
A Church Divided • 1378 A.D., Pope Urban VI chosen • Nobody likes him, so another pope is elected, Clement VII…
A Church Divided • 1378 A.D., Pope Urban VI chosen • Nobody likes him, so another pope is elected, Clement VII… • Now have two popes! Italy & France = The Great (Western) Schism
The Great (Western) Schism • 1414 A.D. – it’s decided to pick a new, single pope to replace the two • Now there are 3 Popes! • Finally, all three are forced to resign and in 1417, Pope Martin V is elected – Church is embarrassed
The Black Death • A fatal disease that spread across Europe. • What caused it? Handout
Description of the Medieval Black Death Those infected felt themselves penetrated by a pain throughout their whole bodies and, so to say, undermined. Then there developed on the thighs or upper arms a boil about the size of a lentil which the people called "burn boil". This infected the whole body, and penetrated it so that the patient violently vomited blood. Then there developed gland boils on the groin, the thighs, the arms, or on the neck. At first these were of the size of a hazel nut, and developed accompanied by violent shivering fits, which soon rendered those attacked so weak that they could not stand up, but were forced to lie in their beds consumed by violent fever. Soon the boils grew to the size of a walnut, then to that of a hen's egg or a goose's egg, and they were exceedingly painful, and irritated the body, causing the sufferer to vomit blood. The sickness lasted three days, and on the fourth, at the latest, the patient succumbed. Michael Platiensis (1357)
Description of Modern Bubonic Plague Bubonic plague symptoms appear suddenly, usually 2–5 days after exposure to the bacteria. Symptoms include: • Chills • General ill feeling • High fever • Muscle Cramps • Seizures • Smooth, painful lymph gland swelling called a bubo, commonly found in the groin, but may occur in the armpits or neck, most often at the site of the initial infection (bite or scratch) • Pain may occur in the area before the swelling appears • Skin color changes to a pink hue in some extreme cases • Bleeding out of the ear will begin after 12 hours of infection Other symptoms may include heavy breathing, continuous blood vomiting, aching limbs, coughing, and extreme pain. The pain is usually caused by the decaying or decomposing of the skin while the person is still alive. Additional symptoms include extreme fatigue, lenticulae(black dots scattered throughout the body), delirium and coma.
The Black Death • A fatal disease that spread across Europe. • The Bubonic Plague
The Black Death • Where did it originate from?
The Black Death • Where did it come from? Central Asia… Entered Europe (1347 A.D.) through Italy, then followed trade routes…
The Black Death • What carried it? Fleas (on rats)…
The Black Death • What did they believe back then? Caused by a noxious form of "bad air“ or “miasma”
“A Plague Doctor” The staff was used to keep infected people at a distance. The doctors wore thick coverings over their hands and bodies. Their cloaks were coated with wax on the inside to help seal out the disease. It seems to have helped. Few doctors appear to have gotten sick.
“Plague Doctors” stuffed their masks with herbs and flowers to keep out the bad smells that many doctors believed was causing the disease. The glass eye coverings helped to seal out the smell. It is interesting that though doctors of the time didn’t really know about germs these techniques are not very different from modern biological safety techniques.
The Black Death • Through Europe by 1351
Effects of the Black Death • 1/3 of Europeans died (25 million?)
Effects of the Black Death • 1/3 of Europeans died (25 million?) • This led to a breakdown in society and in families. • Parents abandoned kids, priests abandoned followers. • Those who died were rarely given funerals or burials. They were just dragged off and thrown into mass graves.
Effects of the Black Death • Town populations fell • Trade declined • Prices rose • Serfs left the manor in search of better wages…
Effects of the Black Death.. • Noble resist higher wages, causing peasant revolts • Jews blamed for bringing on the plague • Church lost prestige when prayers failed to stop plague, and priests abandoned duties
The Hundred Years’ War • France vs. England • On and off from 1337 – 1453 A.D. • Fighting over French throne • Style of warfare changes
The Battle at Crecy 1346 A.D. France had 36,000 knights. England had 12,000 with 7,000 of them being bowman. England won! (huh?!) The longbow makes knights in full armor unnecessary.
Impact of the Hundred Years’ War • Page 403 • Feeling of nationalism emerged in England and France – King a national leader, fighting for the nation • power and prestige of French monarch increased • English fell into War of the Roses, in which two noble houses fought for the throne • * Hundred Years’ War marks the “end” of the Middle Ages
Dang you Magna Carta… I used to be so buff! Factors • The Crusades helped by uniting the knights against a common enemy. • TheMagna Carta limited the power of kings. • But the main factor in the end of feudalism though was the Black Death.
Job Specialization • As with most medieval cultures, most Europeans were farmers. • As time went on though more and more jobs were available. • People could start making money and no longer had to rely so heavily on the feudal lords.