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Nervous System Anatomy. Breakdown:. Central Nervous System (CNS). Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic N.S. Parasympathetic N.S. Brain Spinal Cord. Function of the CNS:. Spinal Cord Conducts sensory information to the brain

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breakdown
Breakdown:

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Somatic Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System

Sympathetic N.S.

Parasympathetic N.S.

  • Brain
  • Spinal Cord
function of the cns
Function of the CNS:
  • Spinal Cord
    • Conducts sensory information to the brain
    • Conducts motor information to the brain
      • Skeletal Muscle
      • Cardiac Muscle
      • Smooth Muscle
      • Glands
    • Minor reflex center
functions of the cns
Functions of the CNS:
  • Brain
    • Receives sensory input from Spinal Cord and own nerves (e.g. olfactory/optical nerves)
    • Process information
    • Generates and coordinates appropriate responses
functions of the pns
Functions of the PNS:

Somatic Nervous System

  • Regulate body movement
    • Control of skeletal muscle
    • Reception of external stimuli (i.e. the senses!!)

Summary: RECEIVE and REACT to the WORLD around us!!!

functions of the pns1
Functions of the PNS:

Autonomic Nervous System

  • Innervates:
    • Cardiac Muscle
    • Smooth Muscle
    • Glands
  • Regulates hormone levels
  • Homeostasis!!
functions of the pns2
Functions of the PNS:

Sympathetic Nervous System

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Returns body to normal after Sympathetic response

Vagus Nerve – originates in Medulla Oblongata, can play a role in controlling inflammation

  • Localized adjustments and reflex adjustments of cardiovascular system
  • Whole system response: Fight or Flight
major divisions
Major Divisions
  • The brain of all vertebrates develops from three swellings at the anterior end of the neural tube of the embryo. From front to back these develop into the:
    • Forebrain (Prosencephalon)
      • Cerebral Hemispheres: Telencephalon and Diencephalon
    • Midbrain (Mesencephalon)
      • Substantianigra, Ventral tegmental area (VTA)
    • Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon)
      • Medulla oblongata, Pons, Cerebellum
medulla oblongata
Medulla Oblongata
  • Rhythmic stimulation of intercostals and diaphragm
  • Regulate heartbeat
  • Regulate bloodflow (diameter of arterioles)
slide15
Pons
  • Relays information from eyes, ears, and touch receptors from cortex to cerebellum
cerebellum
Cerebellum
  • Functions:
    • Coordination of voluntary movement
    • Motor-learning
    • Balance
    • Reflex memory
    • Posture
    • Timing
  • Contains as many neurons as rest of brain combined!
  • Associated with Damage:
    • Loss of fine coordination
    • Tremor
    • Inability to walk
    • Dizziness (vertigo)
    • Slurred speech
midbrain
Midbrain
  • SubstantiaNigra:
    • Helps “smooth” out body motions
  • Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA):
    • One of the pleasure centers of the brain (dopamine releasing neurons)
brain stem
Brain Stem
  • Midbrain
  • Pons
  • Medulla oblongata
forebrain telencephalon
Forebrain: Telencephalon
  • Cerebrum
    • 4 lobes
      • Frontal
      • Parietal
      • Occipital
      • Temporal
frontal lobe
Frontal Lobe
  • Higher cognitive functions
    • Attention
    • Conscious thought
    • Voluntary movement
    • Decision making
    • Language
    • Planning
    • Problem-solving
    • Many more!
  • Associated with damage:
    • Paralysis
    • Loss of spontaneity
    • Mood changes
    • Inability to express language
    • Atypical social skills and personality traits
parietal lobe
Parietal Lobe
  • Perception/Integration of somatosensory information (e.g. touch, pressure, temperature, pain)
  • Visuospatial processing
  • Spatial attention
  • Spatial mapping
  • Number representation
  • Associated with Damage:
    • Inability to locate and recognize objects, events, and parts of the body
    • Difficulty in discriminating between sensory information
    • Disorientation
    • Lack of coordination
occipital lobe
Occipital Lobe
  • Vision!
  • Associated with Damage:
    • Hallucinations
    • Blindness
    • Inability to see color, motion, or orientation
    • synesthesia
temporal lobe
Temporal Lobe
  • Recognition
  • Perception (hearing, vision, smell)
  • Understanding language
  • Learning and Memory
  • Associated with Damage:
    • Difficulty understanding speech, faces, objects
    • Inability to attend to sensory input
    • Persistent talking
    • Long and short-term memory loss
    • aggression
forebrain diencephalon
Forebrain: Diencephalon
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Pituitary Gland
hypothalamus
Hypothalamus
  • Hunger
  • Thirst
  • Body temperature
  • Arousal
  • Parenting
  • Perspiration
  • Blood pressure
  • Beartrrate
  • Shivering
  • Pupil dilation
  • Circadian rhythms
  • Aggression
  • Chronic stress
  • Hypothermia
  • Hypersomnia
  • Lethargy
  • Self-mutilitation
  • Weight gain/loss
thalamus
Thalamus
  • Relaying motor/sensory information
  • Memory
  • Alertness
  • Consciousness
  • Contributes to perception and cognition
  • Associated with Damage:
    • Amnesia
    • Apathy
    • Coma
    • Dementia
    • Difficulty speaking
    • Loss of alertness and activitaion
    • Sleepiness
    • Impaired processing of sensory information
    • Inattention
    • Impaired movements/posture
    • pain
pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland
  • Secretes hormones
  • Referred to as the “master gland”
  • Associated with Damage:
    • Loss of hormonal regulation in many areas of the body
crossing over
Crossing Over
  • “Impulses reaching the spinal cord from the left side of the body eventually pass over to tracts running up to the right side of the brain and vice versa. In some cases this crossing over occurs as soon as the impulses enter the cord. In other cases, it does not take place until the tracts enter the brain itself.”
  • How is this possible???
    • Corpus Callosum!!
corpus callosum
Corpus Callosum
  • Connects right and left hemisphere and allows information to pass between them
  • Associated cognitive disorders:
    • Coma or vegetative state
    • Schizophrenia
    • Psychotic episodes
    • Memory impairment
    • Split-brain syndrome