Nervous System Anatomy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

lei
nervous system anatomy n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Nervous System Anatomy PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Nervous System Anatomy

play fullscreen
1 / 46
Download Presentation
Nervous System Anatomy
179 Views
Download Presentation

Nervous System Anatomy

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Nervous System Anatomy

  2. Breakdown: Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic N.S. Parasympathetic N.S. • Brain • Spinal Cord

  3. Function of the CNS: • Spinal Cord • Conducts sensory information to the brain • Conducts motor information to the brain • Skeletal Muscle • Cardiac Muscle • Smooth Muscle • Glands • Minor reflex center

  4. Functions of the CNS: • Brain • Receives sensory input from Spinal Cord and own nerves (e.g. olfactory/optical nerves) • Process information • Generates and coordinates appropriate responses

  5. Functions of the PNS: Somatic Nervous System • Regulate body movement • Control of skeletal muscle • Reception of external stimuli (i.e. the senses!!) Summary: RECEIVE and REACT to the WORLD around us!!!

  6. Functions of the PNS: Autonomic Nervous System • Innervates: • Cardiac Muscle • Smooth Muscle • Glands • Regulates hormone levels • Homeostasis!!

  7. Functions of the PNS: Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Returns body to normal after Sympathetic response Vagus Nerve – originates in Medulla Oblongata, can play a role in controlling inflammation • Localized adjustments and reflex adjustments of cardiovascular system • Whole system response: Fight or Flight

  8. The Brain

  9. Major Divisions • The brain of all vertebrates develops from three swellings at the anterior end of the neural tube of the embryo. From front to back these develop into the: • Forebrain (Prosencephalon) • Cerebral Hemispheres: Telencephalon and Diencephalon • Midbrain (Mesencephalon) • Substantianigra, Ventral tegmental area (VTA) • Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon) • Medulla oblongata, Pons, Cerebellum

  10. Structures of the Hindbrain

  11. Medulla Oblongata • Rhythmic stimulation of intercostals and diaphragm • Regulate heartbeat • Regulate bloodflow (diameter of arterioles)

  12. Pons • Relays information from eyes, ears, and touch receptors from cortex to cerebellum

  13. Cerebellum • Functions: • Coordination of voluntary movement • Motor-learning • Balance • Reflex memory • Posture • Timing • Contains as many neurons as rest of brain combined! • Associated with Damage: • Loss of fine coordination • Tremor • Inability to walk • Dizziness (vertigo) • Slurred speech

  14. Cerebellum

  15. Midbrain • SubstantiaNigra: • Helps “smooth” out body motions • Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA): • One of the pleasure centers of the brain (dopamine releasing neurons)

  16. Brain Stem • Midbrain • Pons • Medulla oblongata

  17. Forebrain: Telencephalon • Cerebrum • 4 lobes • Frontal • Parietal • Occipital • Temporal

  18. Frontal Lobe • Higher cognitive functions • Attention • Conscious thought • Voluntary movement • Decision making • Language • Planning • Problem-solving • Many more! • Associated with damage: • Paralysis • Loss of spontaneity • Mood changes • Inability to express language • Atypical social skills and personality traits

  19. Parietal Lobe • Perception/Integration of somatosensory information (e.g. touch, pressure, temperature, pain) • Visuospatial processing • Spatial attention • Spatial mapping • Number representation • Associated with Damage: • Inability to locate and recognize objects, events, and parts of the body • Difficulty in discriminating between sensory information • Disorientation • Lack of coordination

  20. Parietal Lobe

  21. Occipital Lobe • Vision! • Associated with Damage: • Hallucinations • Blindness • Inability to see color, motion, or orientation • synesthesia

  22. Occipital Lobe

  23. Temporal Lobe • Recognition • Perception (hearing, vision, smell) • Understanding language • Learning and Memory • Associated with Damage: • Difficulty understanding speech, faces, objects • Inability to attend to sensory input • Persistent talking • Long and short-term memory loss • aggression

  24. Temporal Lobe

  25. Forebrain: Diencephalon • Thalamus • Hypothalamus • Pituitary Gland

  26. Hypothalamus • Hunger • Thirst • Body temperature • Arousal • Parenting • Perspiration • Blood pressure • Beartrrate • Shivering • Pupil dilation • Circadian rhythms • Aggression • Chronic stress • Hypothermia • Hypersomnia • Lethargy • Self-mutilitation • Weight gain/loss

  27. Hypothalamus

  28. Thalamus • Relaying motor/sensory information • Memory • Alertness • Consciousness • Contributes to perception and cognition • Associated with Damage: • Amnesia • Apathy • Coma • Dementia • Difficulty speaking • Loss of alertness and activitaion • Sleepiness • Impaired processing of sensory information • Inattention • Impaired movements/posture • pain

  29. Thalamus

  30. Thalamus

  31. Pituitary Gland • Secretes hormones • Referred to as the “master gland” • Associated with Damage: • Loss of hormonal regulation in many areas of the body

  32. Pituitary Gland

  33. Crossing Over • “Impulses reaching the spinal cord from the left side of the body eventually pass over to tracts running up to the right side of the brain and vice versa. In some cases this crossing over occurs as soon as the impulses enter the cord. In other cases, it does not take place until the tracts enter the brain itself.” • How is this possible??? • Corpus Callosum!!

  34. Corpus Callosum • Connects right and left hemisphere and allows information to pass between them • Associated cognitive disorders: • Coma or vegetative state • Schizophrenia • Psychotic episodes • Memory impairment • Split-brain syndrome

  35. Corpus Callosum