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Anatomy Nervous System Lab. Divisions of the Nervous System. Central nervous system – brain & spinal cord Peripheral nervous system – cranial nerves & spinal nerves. The Brain. Brain stem medulla oblongata (M.O.) pons midbrain Diencephalon thalamus hypothalamus

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slide2

Divisions of the Nervous System

  • Central nervous system – brain & spinal cord
  • Peripheral nervous system – cranial nerves & spinal nerves
the brain
The Brain
  • Brain stem
    • medulla oblongata (M.O.)
    • pons
    • midbrain
  • Diencephalon
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
      • mamillary bodies
    • epithalamus (pineal gland)
  • Cerebrum
  • Cerebellum

Cerebrum

T

P

P

H

midbrain

M

Cerebellum

pons

m.o.

the brainstem
The Brainstem
  • medulla oblongata (M.O.)
  • pons
  • midbrain –
    • cerebral peduncle
    • cerebral aqueduct of midbrain
    • corpora quadrigemina
      • superior colliculi
      • inferior colliculi

pons

Cerebral peduncle

m.o.

Cerebral aqueduct of midbrain

the diencephalon
The Diencephalon
  • thalamus
  • hypothalamus
    • mamillary bodies
    • connects to pituitary gland via infundibulum
  • epithalamus (pineal gland)

T

P

H

M

infundibulum

the diencephalon1
The Diencephalon

Intermediate mass of Thalamus

Pineal gland

Hypothalamus

Infundibulum

Pituitary gland

cerebrum
Cerebrum

convolutions

gyrus

sulcus

(separated from cerebrum by transverse fissure)

4 lobes per hemisphere- frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital

the cerebrum

corpus callosum

septum pellucidum

fornix

The Cerebrum
the cerebellum

gray matter “folia”

  • white matter “arbor vitae”
  • separated from cerebrum by transverse fissure
  • 2 hemispheres connected by “vermis”
The Cerebellum

Transverse fissure

the spinal cord
The Spinal Cord
  • Begins at foramen magnum & ends at L2 vertebral level by forming conus medularis
  • Has 2 thickened areas-

cervical enlargement - supplies nerves to upper extremity

  • lumbar enlargement - supplies nerves to lower extremity
  • Made up of 31 spinal cord segments
cross sectional anatomy of the spinal cord segments

Posterior median sulcus

Posterior column

Posterior gray horn - sensory

Central canal

Lateral column

Lateral gray horn (T1-L2, S2-S4) - autonomic

Anterior gray horn - motor

Anterior column

Anterior median fissure

Cross Sectional Anatomy of the Spinal cord segments

Dorsal root

Dorsal root ganglion

Gray commissure

Spinal nerve

Ventral root

the spinal cord spinal nerves
The Spinal Cord & Spinal Nerves
  • Each spinal cord segment gives off a pair of spinal nerves
  • each spinal nerve forms from union of dorsal/ventral root of spinal cord segment & exits between vertebra at IVF
    • 8 pair cervical spinal nerves – 1st cervical nerve exits between occipital bone & C1, 8th cervical nerve exits the IVF between C7-T1
    • 12 pair thoracic spinal nerves
    • 5 pair lumbar nerves
    • 5 pair sacral nerves
    • 1 pair coccygeal nerves
slide14

Below the conus medularis, spinal nerves must angle downward (in the subarachnoid space) before exiting their IVF. These spinal nerves make up the cauda equina

Cauda equina

the central nervous system
The Central Nervous System

CNS well protected by bones (cranial & vertebrae), CT meninges, & cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Meninges – Connective tissues that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord (CNS)

  • 3 layers:
    • Dura Mater
    • Arachnoid
    • Pia Mater
slide16

Meninges

Dura Mater – tough, fibrous outer layer

  • 2 layers thick around brain with creation of dural sinuses between layers; dural folds into fissures of brain
slide17

Superior sagittal sinus

Falx cerebri

Inferior sagittal sinus

Tentorium cerebelli

Straight sinus

Confluence of sinuses

Transverse sinus

Sigmoid sinus

Dural folds and dural sinuses

slide18

Dural folds and dural sinuses

Superior sagittal sinus

Falx cerebri

Inferior sagittal sinus

Straight sinus

Confluence of sinuses

Transverse sinus

slide19

Meninges- Dura mater

  • 1 layer around spinal cord with epidural space external
meninges
Meninges

Arachnoid– “spidery” web-like middle layer

slide21

Pia Mater – delicate, thin inner layer;

        • filum terminale - extension of pia mater extends from tip of cord to coccyx to anchor cord in place;
        • denticulate ligaments anchor cord laterally
meninges1
Meninges

Subarachnoid space – between arachnoid & pia mater; contains cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)

cerebrospinal fluid csf
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • clear, colorless fluid formed by filtration of blood plasma by choroid plexuses within ventricles of the brain.
  • functions in protection of CNS, support, nutrient supply, waste removal
csf circulation
CSF Circulation

Lateral ventricles (in cerebral hemispheres)  interventricular foramen  third ventricle (in diencephalon around thalamus)  cerebral aqueduct of midbrain  fourth ventricle (between pons/cerebellum)  subarachnoid space & central canal of SC

Lateral ventricle (behind septum pellucidum)

Third ventricle

Aqueduct of midbrain

Fourth ventricle

slide26

Reabsorption of CSF through arachnoid granulations (arachnoid villi) of dural sinuses (superior sagittal sinus)  into cerebral veins

cranial nerves
Cranial Nerves
  • 12 pairs of nerves that connect to the brain; provide motor, sensory &/or autonomic (parasympathetic) function
spinal nerves plexuses
Spinal nerves & Plexuses

(Intercostal nerves)

(Common peroneal nerve)