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The History and Orientation of the Fire Service PowerPoint Presentation
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The History and Orientation of the Fire Service

The History and Orientation of the Fire Service

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The History and Orientation of the Fire Service

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  1. 1 The History and Orientation of the Fire Service

  2. Objectives (1 of 4) • List five guidelines for successful fire fighter training. • Define the roles and responsibilities of a Fire Fighter I and a Fire Fighter II. • Describe the roles of fire fighters within the fire department.

  3. Objectives (2 of 4) • Describe the four basic principles of organization of a fire department. • Describe a fire department’s regulations, policies, and standard operating procedures, and explain how they apply to the fire fighter.

  4. Objectives (3 of 4) • Locate information in departmental documents and standard operating procedures. • List the different types of fire department companies, and describe their functions.

  5. Objectives (4 of 4) • Define the chain of command as it applies to a fire department. • Describe changes in the fire department from colonial days to the present.

  6. Introduction • Training to become a fire fighter is not easy. • Fire fighters are challenged both physically and mentally. • Fire fighter training will expand your understanding of fire suppression.

  7. Fire Fighter Guidelines • Be safe. • Follow orders. • Work as a team. • Think! • Follow the golden rule.

  8. General Qualifications (1 of 3) • Age requirements • Most departments require that candidates be between the ages of 18 and 21. • Education requirements • Most departments require a minimum of a high school diploma or equivalent.

  9. General Qualifications (2 of 3) • Medical requirements • Medical evaluations are often required before training can begin. • Medical requirements for fire fighters are specified in NFPA 1582, Standard on Comprehensive Operational Medical Program for Fire Departments.

  10. General Qualifications (3 of 3) • Physical fitness requirements • Physical fitness requirements ensure that fire fighters have the strength and stamina needed. • Emergency medical requirements • Departments may require fire fighters to be certified at the first responder, Emergency Medical Technician Basic, or higher levels.

  11. Roles and Responsibilities ofthe Fire Fighter I (1 of 5) • Properly don and doff personal protective equipment. • Hoist hand tools using appropriate ropes and knots. • Understand and correctly apply appropriate communication protocols. • Use self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

  12. Roles and Responsibilities ofthe Fire Fighter I (2 of 5) • Respond on apparatus to an emergency scene. • Force entry into a structure. • Exit a hazardous area safely as a team. • Set up ground ladders safely and correctly.

  13. Roles and Responsibilities ofthe Fire Fighter I (3 of 5) • Attack a passenger vehicle fire, an exterior Class A fire, and an interior structure fire. • Conduct search and rescue in a structure. • Perform ventilation of an involved structure. • Overhaul a fire scene.

  14. Roles and Responsibilities ofthe Fire Fighter I (4 of 5) • Conserve property with salvage tools and equipment. • Connect a fire department engine to a water supply. • Extinguish Class A, Class B, Class C, and Class D fires. • Illuminate an emergency scene. • Turn off utilities.

  15. Roles and Responsibilities ofthe Fire Fighter I (5 of 5) • Perform fire safety surveys. • Clean and maintain equipment. • Present fire safety information to station visitors, community groups, or schools.

  16. Roles and Responsibilities ofthe Fire Fighter II (1 of 2) • Coordinate an interior attack line team. • Extinguish an ignitable liquid fire. • Control a flammable gas cylinder fire. • Protect evidence of fire cause and origin. • Assess and disentangle victims from motor vehicle accidents.

  17. Roles and Responsibilities ofthe Fire Fighter II (2 of 2) • Assist special rescue team operations. • Perform annual service tests on fire hose. • Test the operability of, and flow from, a fire hydrant. • Assist visitors to the fire station and use the opportunity to discuss fire safety information

  18. General Roles Within the Department (1 of 2) • Fire fighter • Driver/operator • Company officer • Safety officer • Training officer • Incident commander • Fire marshal/inspector/investigator

  19. General Roles Within the Department (2 of 2) • Fire and life safety education specialist • 9-1-1 dispatcher/telecommunicator • Apparatus maintenance personnel • Fire police • Information management • Public information officer • Fire protection engineer

  20. Specialized Response Roles • Aircraft/crash rescue fire fighter • Hazardous materials technician • Technical rescue technician • SCUBA dive rescue technician • EMS personnel • EMT-Basic, Intermediate, and Paramedic

  21. Working with Other Organizations (1 of 2) • Fire departments need to interact with other organizations in the community. • Law enforcement • EMS • The military • Other state agencies

  22. Working with Other Organizations (2 of 2) • Incident command system (ICS) • Unified command system • Controls multiple agencies at an incident

  23. Fire Department Governance (1 of 3) • Regulations • Detailed rules that implement a law passed by a governmental body • Policies • Outline what is expected in stated conditions • Issued by a department to provide guidelines for its actions

  24. Fire Department Governance (2 of 3) • SOPs • Provide specific information on actions that should be taken to accomplish a task • Ensure that all members perform a task in the same manner • Provide a uniform way to deal with situations • May also be called standard operating guidelines (SOGs)

  25. Fire Department Governance (3 of 3)

  26. Organization of the Fire Service Company Types (1 of 3) • Engine

  27. Company Types (2 of 3) • Truck • Specializes in forcible entry, ventilation, roof operations, search and rescue, and deployment of ground ladders • Rescue • Rescue victims from confined spaces, trenches, and high angles

  28. Company Types (3 of 3) • Wildland/brush • Four-wheel drive vehicles • Hazardous materials • Scenes involving spilled or leaking hazardous materials • EMS • Assists in transporting to medical facilities

  29. Other Views of Organization • Staffing • Department must have sufficient trained personnel available • Function • Bureau or office • Apparatus type • Geography

  30. Chain of Command (1 of 4) • Structure for managing the department and the fire-ground operations • Ranks may vary by department, but the concept is the same

  31. Chain of Command (2 of 4) • Lieutenant • Single company on a single shift • Captain • Company on shift and for coordinating company’s activities with other shifts • Battalion chief • Coordinates activities of several companies in a defined geographic area

  32. Chain of Command (3 of 4) • Assistant or division chief • In charge of a functional area within the department • Chief of the department • Overall responsibility for administration and operations of the department

  33. Chain of Command (4 of 4) • Used to implement department policies • Ensures that a given task is carried out in a uniform manner

  34. Source of Authority Source of authority Local governments Sometimes from state and federal governments Fire chief accountable to the governing body

  35. Basic Principles of Organization (1 of 3) • Discipline • Division of labor • Organizing an incident by breaking down overall strategy • Makes individual responsible for completing the assigned task • Prevents duplicate job assignments

  36. Basic Principles of Organization (2 of 3) • The organization of a typical fire department

  37. Basic Principles of Organization (3 of 3) • Unity of command • Each fire fighter answers to only one supervisor. • Establishes a direct route of responsibility • Span of control • Number of people one person can supervise effectively

  38. History of the Fire Service • Romans created first fire department, the Familia Publica. • First paid department in the United States was Boston (established in 1679) • Ben Franklin started the first volunteer department in the United States in Philadelphia in 1735. • Citizens kept fire buckets to assist with fire suppression.

  39. The Great Chicago Fire • Began October 8, 1871 • Burned for three days • Damage totals: • $200 million in damage • 300 dead • 90,000 homeless

  40. The Peshtigo Fire • Flash forest fire occurred at same time as the Great Chicago Fire • “Tornado of fire” 1000' high and 5 miles wide • Deadliest fire in U.S. history • 2400 square miles of forest land burned • 2200 dead • Several small communities destroyed

  41. Building Codes (1 of 2) • History of building codes • Egyptians used codes to prevent collapse. • Colonial communities had few codes. • Early construction in the United States was primarily wood. • Boston required noncombustible roofs. • Present codes address construction materials and “built-in” protection.

  42. Building Codes (2 of 2) • Codes and standards are written by national organizations. • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) • Volunteer committees research and develop proposals. • Most codes today are consensus documents.

  43. Training and Education • Originally, little was required beyond muscular strength and endurance. • Requirements have increased as fire suppression has become more complicated and technical.

  44. Fire Equipment (1 of 2) • Colonial fire fighters had buckets and fire hooks. • Hand-powered pumpers developed in 1720 • Steam-powered pumpers developed in 1829

  45. Fire Equipment (2 of 2) • Present-day equipment • Single apparatus used for several purposes • Fire hydrants developed in 1817 • First public call boxes developed in 1860

  46. Communications (1 of 2) • Fire wardens and night watchmen used during colonial period • Telegraph alarm systems developed in late 1800s • Present day • Hardwired and cellular telephones • Computer-aided dispatch facilities

  47. Communications (2 of 2) • Fire-ground communications • Early days: Chief’s trumpet (bugles), now a symbol of authority • Present: Two-way radios

  48. Paying for Fire Service • In early times, insurance companies paid fire departments for service. • Career departments are generally funded through local tax funds.

  49. Fire Service in the United States • About 1.1 million fire fighters • 75% of career fire fighters serve communities of 25,000 or larger. • Half of volunteers serve rural areas of population 2500 or smaller. • Approximately 30,000 fire departments

  50. 2005 Fire Statistics for the United States • 396,000 residential fires • Average of 45 per hour • 3,030 residential fire fatalities • Average of one every 173 minutes • 3,675 people died • Every 20 seconds a fire department responds to a fire • Estimated 31,500 fires intentionally set structure fire • 801,000 outside fires in the United States