Phase Changes

1 / 22

# Phase Changes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Phase Changes. Kinetic Theory. Kinetic= motion All matter consists of small particles The molecules are in constant, random, rapid motion All collisions are elastic (no net loss of energy). As temperature increases, the molecules velocity increases, increasing the pressure on the container.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Phase Changes' - lee-lewis

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

### Phase Changes

Kinetic Theory
• Kinetic= motion
• All matter consists of small particles
• The molecules are in constant, random, rapid motion
• All collisions are elastic (no net loss of energy)

As temperature increases, the molecules velocity increases, increasing the pressure on the container.

Mean Free Path
• The average distance traveled between collisions.
• An oxygen molecules will collide with other molecules 4.5 billion times per second!

The temperature of a substance is a measure of the average kinetic energy of its particles.

• Absolute zero – the temperature at which molecular motion stops (-273.15oC)
Gas Pressure
• Caused by gas molecules colliding with the sides of a container
• Force per unit area
• Units:

1 atm = 101.3 kPa = 760 mmHg = 760 torr

Measuring Pressure
• Open Manometer – atmosphere exerts pressure on one side and gas sample exerts pressure on the other side
• Add if gas pressure is greater
• Subtract if air pressure is greater
• Closed Manometer (barometer) – vacuum on one side, gas pressure on the other side
• No addition or subtraction necessary
Vapor Pressure
• The pressure produced when vapor particles above a liquid collide with container walls; a dynamic equilibrium exists between the liquid and the vapor.
• Vapor pressure increases with temperature.
• A substance with weak intermolecular forces has a high vapor pressure and low boiling points. (these are volatile – alcohols, ethers)
• A substance with strong intermolecular forces has a low vapor pressure and high boiling point (these are nonvolatile – water, molasses, glycerol)
Phase Diagrams
• Critical Point – above this temperature, no amount of pressure can liquefy it.
• Triple Point – all three phases are in equilibrium