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Western Wind and Solar Integration Study - Phase 3. Kara Clark, NREL Nick Miller, Miaolei Shao, Slobodan Pajic, Rob D’Aquila, GE July 15, 2014. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study.

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Western Wind and Solar Integration Study - Phase 3

Kara Clark, NRELNick Miller, Miaolei Shao, Slobodan Pajic, Rob D’Aquila, GE

July 15, 2014

western wind and solar integration study
Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

Phase 1 - Can we integrate high penetrations of wind and solar into the Western Interconnection? What do we need to do to accommodate this?

Phase 2 – What is the impact of high penetration wind and solar on the rest of the generation fleet? Specifically, what are the costs of cycling, and the emissions impacts of cycling? Do wind and solar differ in their impact?

wwsis phase 3 project objectives
WWSIS Phase 3 Project Objectives
  • Examine Western Interconnection large scale stability and frequency response with high wind and solar penetration
  • Identify means to mitigate any adverse impact (advanced controls, transmission, storage, etc)
  • Investigate whether power system reliability can be maintained with high wind and solar penetration
building the study scenarios
Building the Study Scenarios
  • WECC power flow and dynamic databases
    • 2022 Light Spring, 2023 Heavy Summer
  • WWSIS Phase 2 renewable scenario
    • High Mix 33% wind and solar annual energy (½ and ½)
  • Mine WWSIS Phase 2 PLEXOS results
    • Time periods that match power flow cases,
    • High levels of wind and solar generation,
    • Balance of fleet commitment and dispatch
  • Composite load model including rooftop PV
  • Defined 4 regions for reporting
    • Northwest = Northwest
    • California = IID, LADWP, PGE, SDG&E, SCE
    • Northeast = PACE, ID, MT, Sierra, WAPA UM
    • Desert Southwest = AZ, El Paso, NV, NM, WAPA RM, PSCo
wwsis 3 light spring scenarios
WWSIS 3 Light Spring scenarios

Reference Case High Renewable Case

~27GW Wind, ~25GW Solar57% penetration*

~21GW Wind, ~5GW Solar28% penetration*

* = % of instantaneous load

wwsis 3 extreme light spring scenario
WWSIS 3 Extreme Light Spring scenario

Reference Case Extremely High Renewable Case

~21GW Wind, ~5GW Solar28% penetration*

High Renewable Case

~33GW Wind, ~32GW Solar69% penetration*

~27GW Wind, ~25GW Solar57% penetration*

* = % of instantaneous load

composite load model cmplwg
Composite Load Model (CMPLWG)

PLnet

M

Pma

QLnet

Loadflow

Bus

M

Pmb

PLagg

M

Pmc

M

Pdg

Pmd

PV gen.

Qdg

Electronic

Pel

UVLS

UFLS

Static

Pst

scope of analysis
Scope of Analysis
  • Not comprehensive or exhaustive
  • Frequency response focused on loss of 2 Palo Verde units
  • Transient stability focused on loss of Pacific DC Intertie and fault on new bus in wind rich part of Wyoming
  • Lots of monitoring
  • Standard performance criteria
  • Sensitivity analysis of mitigation measures
frequency response analysis
Frequency Response Analysis
  • Evaluate frequency response to loss of generation
    • Large central station
    • Distributed generation
  • Apply frequency controls to wind plants
  • Apply frequency controls to solar plants
  • Add energy storage
  • Illustrate impact of re-dispatch and/or de-commitment
  • Headroom depletion
frequency response obligation
Frequency Response Obligation
  • BAL 003-1
  • Approximate FROfor 4 regions and 20areas.
  • Actual FRO is BA based
preliminary frequency response results
Preliminary Frequency Response Results

ReferenceHigh Renewables

Extremely High Renewables

  • Frequency nadir

59.6759.65

59.61

  • Settling frequency

59.8459.84

59.81

2 Palo Verde unit outage

Preliminary. Not for Citation or Further Distribution.

apply frequency controls to wind plants
Apply Frequency Controls to Wind Plants
  • 5% primary frequency response (aka APC = active power control)
    • Apply to new wind plants loaded <= 95% of rating
    • No change to power flow, assume wind speed is sufficient to deliver 5% more
    • ~900 MW headroom
  • Controlled inertial response
  • Combination of APC and controlled inertial response
high renewables frequency response
High Renewables Frequency Response

High RenewablesHR + Wind Controlled Inertial Response

HR + Wind Active Power Control

HR + Wind Controlled Inertial Response & APC

Preliminary. Not for Citation or Further Distribution.

apply frequency controls on solar plants
Apply Frequency Controls on Solar Plants
  • 5% primary frequency response
    • Apply to new utility scale PV only
    • ~820 MW curtailment
    • Aggressive control
  • No controlled inertial response
high renewables frequency response1
High Renewables Frequency Response

High RenewablesHR + Solar Governor Response

Preliminary. Not for Citation or Further Distribution.

transient stability analysis
Transient Stability Analysis
  • Evaluate stability under heavy summer conditions in response to
    • PDCI outage
    • Broadview 500kV fault and line trip
    • Laramie River 345kV fault and line trip
  • Impact of load modeling
  • Analyze coal plant displacement/retirements
    • Aeolus 500kV fault and line trip
    • Extremely high renewables
    • Light spring
  • System strength
    • % Non-synchronous generation
  • Investigate possible relay impacts/issues
wwsis 3 extreme light spring scenario1
WWSIS 3 Extreme Light Spring scenario

Reference Case Extremely High Renewable Case

~21GW Wind, ~5GW Solar28% penetration*

High Renewable Case

~33GW Wind, ~32GW Solar69% penetration*

~27GW Wind, ~25GW Solar57% penetration*

* = % of instantaneous load

coal displaced retired
Coal Displaced/Retired

DSW

Northeast

Coal

Coal

!!

!!

Reference High Renewables Extremely High

Renewables

Reference High Renewables Extremely High

Renewables

Preliminary. Not for Citation or Further Distribution.

ne areas
NE Areas

Idaho (60) Montana (62) Sierra (64) PACE (65)

Reference High Extremely

Renewables High

Renewables

Reference High Extremely

Renewables High

Renewables

Reference High Extremely

Renewables High

Renewables

Reference High Extremely

Renewables High

Renewables

Preliminary. Not for Citation or Further Distribution.

wyodak 230 kv bus voltage
WYODAK 230 kV Bus Voltage

ReferenceHigh Renewables

Extremely High Renewables

Extremely High Renewables with Reinforcements

Preliminary. Not for Citation or Further Distribution.

dave johnson synchronous condenser conversion
Dave Johnson Synchronous Condenser Conversion

ReferenceExtremely High Renewables with Reinforcements

Power (MW)

Reactive Power (MVAr)

ReferenceExtremely High Renewables with Reinforcements

Preliminary. Not for Citation or Further Distribution.

system strength
System Strength
  • Systemic concern about future low levels of synchronous generation
    • EirGrid monitors “system non-synchronous penetration”, currently limited to <50%, potential to raise limit to <75%
    • Also an issue in west Texas, Brazil, Australia
  • Fault currents
synchronous vs non synchronous commitment
Synchronous vs. Non-synchronous Commitment

California

DSW

Northwest

Northeast

Condensers

HS Reference

HS High Renewables

LSP Reference

LSP High Renewables

LSP Extremely High

HS Reference

HS High Renewables

LSP Reference

LSP High Renewables

LSP Extremely High

HS Reference

HS High Renewables

LSP Reference

LSP High Renewables

LSP Extremely High

HS Reference

HS High Renewables

LSP Reference

LSP High Renewables

LSP Extremely High

Preliminary. Not for Citation or Further Distribution.

HS = heavy summer

LSP = light spring

system non synchronous p enetration
System Non-Synchronous Penetration

~66% SNSP without condensers

~ 61% with condensers

HS Reference

HS High Renewables

LSP Reference

LSP High Renewables

LSP Extremely High

HS Reference

HS High Renewables

LSP Reference

LSP High Renewables

LSP Extremely High

HS Reference

HS High Renewables

LSP Reference

LSP High Renewables

LSP Extremely High

HS Reference

HS High Renewables

LSP Reference

LSP High Renewables

LSP Extremely High

HS = heavy summer

LSP = light spring

Preliminary. Not for Citation or Further Distribution.

observations on high coal displacement weak grid
Observations on high coal displacement / weak grid
  • Dynamic models really need to be right when wind and solar are the dominant source of generation
    • WECC has longstanding best practice to keep dynamic models up-to-date
    • Wind and solar plant modeling needs to be held to the same level of accountability in high penetration future
    • More on investigation of sensitivity to WTG control specifics and of modeling implications.
  • Local problems will occur
    • Good transmission planning practice is needed, especially for voltage management
    • There is no obvious reason why voltage and thermal problems can’t be solved by conventional methods – but they will need to be solved!
  • Further investigation of weak grid aspects needed
    • Maximum fraction of non-synchronous generation the limit on wind and solar now in Ireland, Brazil, etc
    • Potential barrier to high penetration wind and solar in the US
wwsis 3 next steps
WWSIS 3 Next Steps
  • Analysis done
  • Draft final report this summer
  • In-person TRC meeting in October
  • Final report by end of December
thank you
Thank You!

Kara Clark

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

kara.clark@nrel.gov

303-384-7098