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Anatomy Terminology. Body Regions. Axial Region (down midline of body) Appendicular Region (limbs). REGIONS OF THE BODY. 1. Axial Region ( Goes down midline of the body) a) Head b) Neck c) Trunk (has 3 parts) 1) Thorax (chest area). Above diaphragm. Contains heart and lungs.

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Body regions
Body Regions

  • Axial Region (down midline of body)

  • Appendicular Region (limbs)


Regions of the body
REGIONS OF THE BODY

  • 1. Axial Region (Goes down midline of the body)

    • a) Head

    • b) Neck

    • c) Trunk (has 3 parts)

      1) Thorax (chest area). Above diaphragm. Contains heart and lungs.

      • Pectoral Region (chest)

      • Costal ( rib) margin

        2) Abdomen (not called the stomach!). Contains the digestive organs

        Lumbar region (low back)

  • Gluteal region (buttocks)

    3) Pelvis (area that would be covered by brief underwear) Contains urinary and reproductive organs

    Inguinal region (Groin)


  • Regions of the body1
    REGIONS OF THE BODY

    • 2. Appendicular Region (limbs)

      a) Upper Limbs

      1) Axilla (armpit)

      2) Arm (Brachium): shoulder to elbow

      Antecubital fossa (inside of elbow, where blood is drawn)

      3) Forearm (elbow to wrist). Don’t confuse with arm!

      4) Wrist

      5) Hand: 4 fingers with 3 phalanges each; thumb with 2 phalanges; Pollicis: Thumb

      Palmar surface: Palm


    Regions of the body2
    REGIONS OF THE BODY

    • 2. Appendicular Region (limbs)

      b) Lower Limbs

      1) Thigh (hip to knee). Don’t confuse with leg!

      2) Leg (knee to ankle).

      Calf (back of the leg)

      Popliteal region (behind knee)

      Genu: the knee itself

      3) Ankle

      4) Foot: 5 digits

      Hallux: big toe

      Plantar surface: sole of foot


    Body cavities
    Body Cavities

    Figure 1.8a


    Body cavities1
    Body Cavities

    Figure 1.8b


    Regional terms not on the quiz or test
    Regional Terms (not on the quiz or test)

    Figure 1.4a


    Anatomy terminology

    Regional Terms (not on the quiz or test)

    Figure 1.4b


    Anatomical position
    Anatomical Position

    • The body standing erect, facing forward, feet together, toes pointed anteriorly, hands at one’s side, fingers pointing inferiorly, and palms facing forward.

    • Once the body is in this position (or imagined to be in this position,) the positional terms can be used correctly.


    Anatomical position1
    Anatomical Position

    Anatomical Position

    The person is standing up straight

    The palms face anteriorly

    The knees, elbow, and neck are straight (not bent)

    The toes point anteriorly, but the fingers point inferiorly

    Left and Right: yours or the patient’s?

    Figure 1.3


    Positional terms
    Positional Terms

    • These are terms used to describe the position of certain structures on the body.

    • Note: These are “relative terms.” This means that these words are usually used in relating the position of one body structure to another. You can’t say, “He is shorter”. You have to say, “He is shorter than John”.

    • Incorrect: the nose is medial

    • Correct: the nose is medial to the ears


    Positional terms1
    Positional Terms

    • Anterior (Ventral)

    • Posterior (Dorsal)

    • Superior

    • Inferior

    • Medial

    • Lateral

    • Superficial

    • Deep

    • Proximal

    • Distal

    • Supine

    • Prone


    Positional terms2
    Positional Terms

    Anterior/Ventral: towards the front of the body (includes palms and soles)

    Posterior/Dorsal: towards the back of the body

    Superior: towards the head

    Inferior: towards the feet

    Medial (NOT MIDDLE): towards the midline of body

    Lateral: away from midline

    Varus: inward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or joint.

    Valgus: outward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or joint.


    Positional terms3
    Positional Terms

    Superficial: Toward the external environment

    Deep: Towards the inner body

    Proximal: towards the heart

    Distal: away from the heart

    Supine: Laying on one’s back

    Prone: Laying on one’s stomach





    Body planes
    Body Planes

    Frontal (Coronal)

    Sagittal

    Transverse

    Para-Sagittal plane

    Sagittal plane


    Body planes and sections
    Body Planes and Sections

    Frontal (coronal) plane

    Lies vertically and divides body or organ into anterior and posterior parts

    Sagittal plane

    Divides right from left side of body or organ

    Midsagittal (median) plane

    Specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the midline and divides body into EQUAL right and left sides

    Parasagittal plane

    Specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the midline and divides body into UNEQUAL right and left sides

    Transverse plane

    Divides body or organ into superior-inferior parts



    Banana sectioned into planes
    Banana Sectioned into Planes

    Transverse plane

    Sagittal plane

    Frontal (coronal) plane


    Varus valgus
    Varus - Valgus

    Genu = Knee

    Genu Valgum Genu Varus


    Varus valgus1
    Varus - Valgus

    • Coxa = hip



    Movement terms
    Movement Terms

    • Flexion: to decrease the angle of a joint

    • Extension: to increase the angle of a joint, returning it to anatomical position

    • Hyperextension: extension beyond anatomical position

    • In the foot, there are special terms used instead of flexion/extension:

      • Dorsiflexion: flexion of the ankle joint; to raise the toes up in the air. When you stand on your heels with your toes up in the air, you are dorsiflexing your ankle joints.

      • Plantarflexion: extension of the ankle joint; to point the toes downward. When you stand on your toes, you are plantarflexing your ankle joints.


    Flexion and extension
    Flexion and Extension

    Flexion: to decrease the angle of a joint

    Extension: to increase the angle of a joint, returning it to anatomical position

    Hyperextension: extension beyond anatomical position


    Flexion and extension1
    Flexion and Extension

    Flexion: to decrease the angle of a joint

    Extension: to increase the angle of a joint, returning it to anatomical position

    Hyperextension: extension beyond anatomical position


    Flexion extension hyperextension
    Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension

    Hyperextension

    Extension


    Movement terms1
    Movement Terms

    Internal Rotation (or medial rotation): to rotate in the transverse plane toward the midline of the body

    External Rotation (or Lateral Rotation): to rotate in the transverse plane away from the midline of the body.

    These two terms are usually used to describe motions of the shoulder or hips.



    Movement terms2
    Movement Terms

    • Abduction: to move a body part away from the midline of the body

    • Adduction: to move a body part toward the midline of the body

    • Circumduction: to move a body part in a circle

    • Rotation: to pivot a body part around an axis, as in shaking the head “no”



    Movement terms3
    Movement Terms

    Inversion: to rotate the palms or soles in the frontal plane toward the midline of the body.

    Eversion: to rotate the palms or soles in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body.

    You invert and evert your hands, but the bones of the ankle don’t move in a single plane. Rather, they move in three planes, so that motion is more properly called supination and pronation.


    Movements of the hand or foot only
    Movements of the Hand or Foot Only

    Supination and Pronation are movements in three planes.

    • Supination (tri-plane movement)

      • Inversion

      • Adduction

      • Dorsiflexion (or Flexion in hands)

    • Pronation (tri-plane movement)

      • Eversion

      • Abduction

      • Plantarflexion (or Extension in hands)



    Pronation and supination
    Pronation and Supination

    Pronation

    Supination



    Common confusion of positions vs movements
    Common Confusion of POSITIONS vs. MOVEMENTS

    • Prone: a POSITION, not a movement; body is lying face down.

    • Pronation: a MOVEMENT; when the palm is turned downward (in Anatomical Position, the palm will face posterior). The foot can also be pronated; the sole turns laterally away from the body. Pronation of the foot is a tri-plane movement of plantarflexion, abduction, and eversion.

    • Supine: a POSITION, not a movement; body is laying on the back.

    • Supination: a MOVEMENT; when the palm is turned upward, like holding a bowl of soup (in Anatomical Position, the palm will face anterior). The foot can also be supinated; the sole turns medially towards the body. Supination of the foot is a tri-plane movement of dorsiflexion, adduction, and inversion.


    Movement terms4
    Movement Terms

    • Protraction – to project a body part anteriorly, such as the shoulders or jaw

    • Retraction – to pull a body part posteriorly


    Movement terms5
    Movement Terms

    • Elevation – lifting a body part superiorly, such as shoulders or jaw.

    • Depression – lowering a body part inferiorly


    Movement terms6
    Movement Terms

    • Opposition – movement of the thumb to touch the tips of other fingers


    Range of motion
    Range Of Motion

    • Range Of Motion (Rom) 

      • The normal range of movement of any body joint. Range of motion also refers to exercises designed to maintain this range and prevent contractures.  

    • Active Range Of Motion

      • is the range through which a joint can move (typically angular, in one degree of freedom), without assistance or resistance.

    • Passive ROM

      • is the range through which a joint can be moved by an external force (e.g., applied by a therapist).


    Regional terminology
    Regional Terminology

    Thorax

    Pectoral Region

    Costal = rib

    Abdomen

    Pelvis

    Inguinal (Groin)

    Lumbar region

    Gluteal region

    Axilla (armpit)

    Upper Extremity

    • Arm (Brachium)

      • Cubital fossa

    • Forearm

    • Hand

      • Palmar surface of hand

        Lower Extremity

    • Thigh

    • Leg (Calf in back)

      • Popliteal region (behind knee)

    • Foot

      • Plantar surface of foot


    Joint abbreviations
    Joint Abbreviations

    MPJ: Metacarpal (or metatarsal) phalangeal joint


    Joint abbreviations1
    Joint Abbreviations

    DIPJ

    PIPJ

    NOTE: The joint at the tip of the thumb is just called the IPJ

    IPJ

    • IPJ: Interphalangeal joint

      • DIPJ is the distal IPJ

      • PIPJ is the proximal IPJ


    Anterior posterior x ray ap view
    Anterior-Posterior X-ray (AP view)

    • X-ray beam passes from anterior to posterior.


    Anterior posterior x ray ap view1
    Anterior-Posterior X-ray (AP view)

    • X-ray beam passes from anterior to posterior.


    Lateral x ray lat view
    Lateral X-ray (Lat view)

    • X-ray beam passes from medial to lateral


    Lateral x ray lat view1
    Lateral X-ray (Lat view)

    • X-ray beam passes from medial to lateral


    Oblique x ray
    Oblique X-ray

    • Beam enters at 45° angle; good for identifying fractures.