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Violence. Violence Roots of violence. GST . Strain. ANGER. Criminal Behavior. Assignment # 4. According to Agnew, males and females tend to experience different types of strain.

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Roots of violence






assignment 4
Assignment # 4
  • According to Agnew, males and females tend to experience different types of strain.
  • Males: 1) financial problems; 2) work-related problems, 3) status; 4) conflict and competition with peers;
  • Females: 1) abortion; 2) STD 3) verbal, sexual, and physical victimization; 4) gender-based discrimination; 5) child care problems; 6) stressors involving family and friends; 7) low prestige at work; 8) fitting in (looks+popularity);
assignment 44
Assignment # 4
  • Males and females differ in terms of their emotional reactions to strain.
  • Males:Anger+Moral outrage
  • Females: Anger+Fear +Depression+Anxiety+Guilt+Self-blame
assignment 45
Assignment # 4
  • Males and females differ in terms of their behavioral reactions to strain.

Males: Crimeand delinquency

Females: Self-destructive behaviors such as eating disorders, alcohol/drugs, running away from home, self-injuring,self-cutting, prostitution.

final exam
Final Exam
  • New Format
  • 50 Multiple Choice Questions
  • Practice questions?
roots of violence
Roots of violence
  • What causes people to behave violently?
  • Adults and violence
  • Children and violence
  • Several competing explanations
sources of violence
Sources of Violence

Substance abuse

Ineffective families

Cultural Values



Personal Traits

Firearm availability

Regional Values

Human Instincts

personality traits
Personality Traits
  • Abnormal personality structures
  • Depression, impulsivity, aggression, dishonesty, pathological lying, lack of remorse, psychopathology
  • Many murderers kill themselves shortly after committing their crime
  • There cases when people who commit murder wait for the execution (form of “Suicide-murder”)
ineffective families
Ineffective families
  • Absent/deviant parents
  • Inconsistent discipline
  • Lack of supervision
  • Abused children
patterson s social interactional developmental model 1989
Patterson’s Social-Interactional Developmental Model (1989)
  • Children and their environment are in constant interchange
  • The start of antisocial behavior happens in dysfunctional families (harsh and inconsistent discipline, little positive parental involvement, poor monitoring)
  • Family members directly “train” the child to perform antisocial behaviors
patterson s social interactional developmental model 198912
Patterson’s Social-Interactional Developmental Model (1989)
  • In dysfunctional families, coercion is a way of life
  • Child might see that only coercion can stop other family members from employing hitting
  • Antisocial children manifest “conduct problems” outside the home (rejected by peers)
  • Later they gravitate toward “deviant peer groups”
  • This association reinforces delinquent behavior
  • Later these children will have dysfunctional families and promote coercion
mark colvin differential coercion theory
Mark Colvin-Differential Coercion Theory
  • Non-coercive and consistent
  • Non-coercive and erratic
  • Coercive and consistent (depression)
  • Coercive and erratic (chronic criminal)
  • Likelihood of crime varies according to the amount of coercion experienced
  • Low coercion produces low anger, high self-esteem, strong social bonds
  • High erratic coercion produces high anger, low self-esteem, weak social bonds
mark colvin differential coercion theory14
Mark Colvin-Differential Coercion Theory
  • Individuals with background of coercion are more likely to get involved in coercive situations and respond to them with violence
  • They create and maintain the cycle of coercion (coercive to future children+partners)
  • They become caught up in a coercive cycle
abused children
Abused Children
  • Eric and Lyle Menendez were convicted of first-degree murder for the brutal shotgun slaying of their parents in Beverly Hills. Their defense was based on the “abuse excuse”
  • The apparent motives ranged from the brothers’ fear of their father’s abuse to their desire to collect $11 million in insurance
evolutionary factors
Evolutionary factors
  • Human instincts (survival instinct)
  • Violent behavior is committed predominantly by males
  • Sexually aggressive males have been the ones most likely to produce children
exposure to violence
Exposure to violence
  • At home, school, neighborhood
  • Mental health
  • Deviant behavior
  • Victimization
  • Vulnerable to the lure of gangs and other deviant groups
cultural regional values
Cultural/Regional Values
  • Violence-prone subcultures
  • Violence is used to solve social conflicts and dilemmas
  • Ganging
  • Regional values (murder rate is higher in the South)
  • Rising homicide rates in the 1960s and 1970s have been linked to increased gang activity and drug trafficking in central cities
  • Patterns of violence in large cities strongly influence national trends
cultural values
Cultural Values
  • “Legitimation of violence” hypothesis (Archer, Gartner, 1984) argues that during wartime pro-violent values are reinforced and these values are carried over to postwar periods
  • Increase in homicide rates after World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War are consistent with this idea
firearm availability
Firearm availability
  • Greater social acceptance of violence as method of conflict resolution
  • Violence is deeply woven into the fabric of American culture (street talk, prime-time television programming, “gangsta rap” music lyrics)