Violence Unit 6
Aggression, violence, and the televisions’ impact on behavior • Aggression is defined as behavior aimed at causing harm or pain, psychological harm, or personal injury or physical distraction. An important aspect of aggressive behavior is the intention underlying the actor's behavior. • Not all behaviors resulting in harm are considered aggression. For example, a doctor who giving an injection.
Active or Passive Aggression • Aggression can be direct (active) or indirect (passive). It can be physical or verbal. • Examples: Punching the victim (direct, active, physical) • Insulting the victim (direct, active, verbal) • Performing a practical joke, setting a booby trap (direct, active physical) • Spreading malicious gossip (direct, verbal) • Refusing to speak (indirect, verbal) • Refusing to perform a necessary task (indirect, passive, physical)
Social Learning Theory • We learn by watching behaviors being modeled.
Albert Bandura’s Bo Bo Doll experiment demonstrated violence can be learned through his Social Learning Theory. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqNaLerMNOE&feature=related
Research • A study published in the November 2009 issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine found that three-year-old children who watch television or are even just exposed to household TV use by other family members are significantly more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior than children who are not.
More Research • Part of a project out of Princeton University called "The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study", the television study focused on the likely triggers of childhood aggression that often lead to problems later in life including juvenile delinquency, violence, and criminal behavior. Second only to music, television was found to be the element young children between birth and three years old are most exposed to during the early, sensitive years.
Researchers surveyed parents of children who were born between 1998 and 2000 to see if and how often their children were exposed to the television, taking into account other risk behaviors such as a disorderly neighborhood, parental depression, and stress. Following the 36-month evaluation period, researchers found that even when taking other factors into account, TV exposure plays a significant role in encouraging childhood aggression.
Questions • What do we spend money on to keep ourselves safe from violence? Personal as well as tax money. • How has entertainment changed over the years? Discuss in terms of content and delivery.
Research Cont. • Children’s viewing of violent TV shows, their identification with aggressive same-sex TV characters, and their perceptions that TV violence is realistic are all linked to later aggression as young adults, for both males and females. That is the conclusion of a 15-year longitudinal study of 329 youth published in the March issue of Developmental Psychology, a journal of the American Psychological Association (APA). These findings hold true for any child from any family, regardless of the child’s initial aggression levels, their intellectual capabilities, their social status as measured by their parents’ education or occupation, their parents’ aggressiveness, or the mother’s and father’s parenting style.
Moise-Titus, Ph.D., Cheryl-Lynn Podolski, M.A., and Leonard D. Eron, Ph.D., of the University of Michigan undertook the study as a follow-up of a 1977 longitudinal study of 557 children, ages 6 - 10, growing up in the Chicago area. In that study, children identified which violent TV shows they watched most, whether they identified with the aggressive characters and whether they thought the violent situations were realistic. Some examples of shows rated as very violent were Starsky and Hutch, The Six Million Dollar Man and Roadrunner cartoons. The current study re-surveyed 329 of the original boys and girls, now in their early 20s. The participants asked about their favorite TV programs as adults and about their aggressive behaviors. The participants’ spouses or friends were also interviewed and were asked to rate the participant’s frequency of engaging in aggressive behavior. The researchers also obtained data on the participants from state archives, which included criminal conviction records and moving traffic violations.
Results for men • Results show that men who were high TV-violence viewers as children were significantly more likely to have pushed, grabbed or shoved their spouses, to have responded to an insult by shoving a person, to have been convicted of a crime and to have committed a moving traffic violation. Such men, for example, had been convicted of crimes at over three times the rate of other men.
Results for women • Women who were high TV-violence viewers as children were more likely to have thrown something at their spouses, to have responded to someone who made them mad by shoving, punching, beating or choking the person, to have committed some type of criminal act, and to have committed a moving traffic violation. Such women, for example, reported having punched, beaten or choked another adult at over four times the rate of other women.
1950: 10) Mama 9) Hopalong Cassidy 8) Arthur Godfrey’s Talent Scouts • 7) The Lone Ranger 6) Colgate Comedy Hour 5) Gillette Cavalcade of Stars 4) Your Show of Shows 3) Philco Playhouse 2) Fireside Theater • 1) Texaco Star Theater • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G5iypuYl4E0 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMDp9ISLd2E
The 60’s!! • 1965: 10) Batman 9) Hogan’s Heroes 8) Bewitched 7) Beverly Hillbillies 6) Batman 5) Andy Griffith 4) Red Skelton Hour 3) Lucy Show 2) Gomer Pyle PFC 1) Bonanza • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-EEyQIAemn0 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZLsg0EvZozI
The 70’s • 1975: 10) Hawaii 5-0 9) Maude 8) The Waltons 7) Good Times • 6) Rhoda 5) MASH 4) Jeffersons 3) Chico and the Man • 2) Sanford and Son 1) All in the Family
The 80’s • Miami Vice • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a_OtsdXpRzE
2000…. • 2000: CSI and Law and Order are near the top. Behind American Idol. • HBO delivery method and content. • Top 10 of 2013 • Breaking Bad (AMC) • Game Of Thrones (HBO) • The Good Wife (CBSCBS +0.08%) • House of Cards (Netflix) • Mad Men (AMC) • Masters of Sex (Showtime) • Orange is the New Black (Netflix) • Scandal (ABC) • Veep (HBO)
One in six youths between the ages of 10 and 17 has seen or knows someone who has been shot. • The estimated number of child abuse victims increased 40 percent between 1985 and 1991. • Children under 18 were 244 percent more likely to be killed by guns in 1993 than they were in 1986. • Violent crime has increased by more than 560 percent since 1960.
Violence • Violence is the expression of physical or verbal force against self or other, compelling action against one's will on pain of being hurt. • T.V. activity- Count the number of violent acts in 1 hour.
Factors Which Increase Risk of Violent Behavior • Previous aggressive or violent behavior • Being the victim of physical abuse and/or sexual abuse • Exposure to violence in the home and/or community • Exposure to violence in media (TV, movies, etc.) • Use of drugs and/or alcohol • Presence of firearms in home • Combination of stressful family socioeconomic factors (poverty, severe deprivation, marital breakup, single parenting, unemployment, loss of support from extended family)
What are the "warning signs" for violent behavior in children? • Children who have several risk factors and show the following behaviors should be carefully evaluated: • Intense anger • Frequent loss of temper or blow-ups • Extreme irritability • Extreme impulsiveness • Becoming easily frustrated
Firearms and Violence in the United States • there were 32,436 firearm-related deaths. These included: • 17,566 firearm-related suicides • 13,522 firearm-related homicides • 981 unintentional deaths related to firearms. • More than 70% of homicides are committed with a firearm. • Firearm assaults on family members and other intimate acquaintances are 12 times more likely to result in death than are assaults using other weapons. • People living in households in which guns are kept have a risk of suicide that is 5 times greater than people living in households without guns.
In 1997, 6,146 young people 15-24 years old were victims of homicide. This amounts to an average of 17 youth homicide victims per day in the US. • In each year since 1988, more than 80% of homicide victims 15 to 19 years of age were killed with a firearm. In 1997, 85% of homicide victims 15 to 19 years of age were killed with a firearm.
Statistics on Violence by Race and Gender • 4 out of 5 deaths by homicide were male, and 6 out of 7 were African Americans. • The number of African Americans who died from injury by firearms in 1997 was 24.7 per 100,000, as opposed to 10.5 per 100,000 for whites. • This means that African American are more than twice as likely to die from a gunshot than a white. • The number of African American males who died from injury by firearms in 1997 was 46.1 per 100,000 (18.1 per 100,000 for white males).
Television & Health • "Violence is like the nicotine in cigarettes. The reason why the media has to pump ever more violence into us is because we've built up a tolerance. In order to get the same high, we need ever-higher levels… The television industry has gained its market share through an addictive and toxic ingredient." - Lt. Col. David Grossman quoted in The Arizona Republic, May 27, 1999 by Tim Madigan, Fort Worth Star-Telegram
T.V. Statistics • According to the A.C. Nielsen Co., the average American watches more than 4 hours of TV each day (or 28 hours/week, or 2 months of nonstop TV-watching per year). In a 65-year life, that person will have spent 9 years glued to the tube.
T.V. and Family Life • Percentage of households that possess at least one television: 99 • Number of TV sets in the average U.S. household: 2.24 • Percentage of U.S. homes with three or more TV sets: 66 • Number of hours per day that TV is on in an average U.S. home: 6 hours, 47 minutes • Percentage of Americans that regularly watch television while eating dinner: 66 • Number of hours of TV watched annually by Americans: 250 billion
Violent Acts on TV • Number of murders seen on TV by the time an average child finishes elementary school: 8,000 • Number of violent acts seen on TV by age18: 200,000
54% of kids have a TV in their bedroom. - Ibid • 44% of kids say they watch something different when they're alone than with their parents • 66% of children (ages 10 to 16) surveyed say that their peers are influenced by TV shows • Witnessing repeated violent acts can lead to desensitization and a lack of empathy for human suffering. Desensitization is when you have a decrease in a response to a repeated stimulus.
According to the American Psychiatric Association, "The debate is over… For the last three decades, the one predominant finding in research on the mass media is that exposure to media portrayals of violence increases aggressive behavior in children."
A study of 1792 adolescents ages 12-17 showed that watching sex on TV influences teens to have sex. Youths who watched more sexual content where more likely to initiate intercourse and progress to more advanced noncoital sexual activities in the year following the beginning of the study. Youths in the 90th percentile of TV sex viewing had a predicted probability of intercourse initiation that was approximately double that of youths in the 10th percentile. Basically, kids with higher exposure to sex on TV were almost twice as likely than kids with lower exposure to initiate sexual intercourse. - Study Conducted by RAND and published in the September 2004 issue of Pediatrics.
The average youth living in the U.S. watches television 25 hours a week and plays computer games an additional seven hours. - National Institute
The Mean World • The cumulative impact of violence-laden imagery can lead to a "mean-world" perspective, in which viewers have an unrealistically dark view of life. - The Christian Science Monitor, November 18, 1996