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Goals. Develop models to relate “stream health” to land use change and climate change Parameterize models using data from study sites, past work, and newly proposed experiments. Ecosystem structure. Ecosystem function. What do we mean by stream health ?.

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goals
Goals
  • Develop models to relate “stream health” to land use change and climate change
  • Parameterize models using data from study sites, past work, and newly proposed experiments
what do we mean by stream health

Ecosystem structure

Ecosystem function

What do we mean by stream health?

Includes human values: ecosystem servicesclean water for drinking, agriculture, recreation, etc. (fishable/swimmable waters)

supported by biota and ecological processes

slide3

Ecosystem structure

Ecosystem function

Ecological Metrics

Structure

water quality

Biotic diversity & abundance

habitat diversity

Function

nutrient uptake

primary production

decomposition

ecological model development
Ecological model development
  • This project: Ecological structure
    • Habitat Models
  • Proposed project: Ecological Function
    • Primary production
    • Decomposition
the big picture
The Big Picture

Climate Change

Land Use Change

Riparian Vegetation

Sediments

Nutrients

Light

Temperature

Flow

I

D

Light

PP

PP

I

F

D

I

F

D

PP

PP

I

F

D

D

PP

Primary Production

Inverts

Fish

Decomposition

three modelling tasks
Three Modelling Tasks
  • Step 1: Model the inputs
    • Temperature, substrate, siltation,
    • High flows, low flows, nutrients, organic matter
  • Step 2: Use the inputs to model habitat
  • Step 3: Simulate spatial linkages
    • One-way flow
    • Hierarchical structure
    • Watershed and Buffer inputs
umbrella suite of species
Umbrella Suite of Species

Lambeck 1997: “Focal Species: a Multi-Species Umbrella for Nature Conservation”

  • Siltation: Rosyside Dace
  • Algae: Central Stoneroller
  • Inverts: Tessellated Darter
habitat suitability models

0 Suitability 1

Turbidity

0 Suitability 1

Avg water temp

Habitat Suitability Models

Estimates of “Suitability” of various conditions

e.g.,

  • Current velocity
  • Depth
  • Percent riffles, pools
  • Substrate composition
  • Temperature
  • Percent cover
  • pH, oxygen
  • Turbidity
example longnose dace
Example: Longnose Dace

HSI = minimum score = 0.5

1

SI

0

40 75cm/s

Avg current velocity

1m

Max riffle depth

50%

% riffles

10 20 30

Avg max temp in riffles

1

SI

0

50%

% appropriate substrate

50%

% cover

slide11

Rosyside Dace

A drift-feeder, sensitive to siltation and flooding

Riparian zone:

 Leafy Debris inputs

 Wood / Roots / Flow obstructions

Siltation

Particle Size: gravel

 constrains spawning

Flood events: frequency, intensity, timing, refuges

 impose mortality

Baseflow: velocity distributions

 determines energetic costs and feeding success

  • Temperature
  • affects growth rate and reproduction
going beyond habitat suitability models
Going beyond Habitat Suitability Models
  • Want to evaluate habitat in a spatial context (land use change)
  • Want to evaluate habitat over time (climate change)
  • Want to estimate uncertainty / risk (chaining models)

Spatially Explicit Index Models (SESI)

three modelling tasks1
Three Modelling Tasks
  • Step 1: Model the inputs
    • Temperature, substrate, siltation,
    • High flows, low flows, nutrients, organic matter
  • Step 2: Use the inputs to model habitat
  • Step 3: Simulate spatial linkages
    • One-way flow
    • Hierarchical structure
    • Watershed and Buffer inputs
spatial structure of a stream1
Spatial Structure of a Stream
  • One way flow
  • Hierarchical structure
spatial structure of a stream2
Spatial Structure of a Stream
  • One way flow
  • Hierarchical structure
  • Watersheds
spatial structure of a stream3
Spatial Structure of a Stream
  • One way flow
  • Hierarchical structure
  • Watersheds
  • Riparian Buffers
spatial structure of an urban stream
Spatial Structure of an Urban Stream
  • One way flow
  • Hierarchical structure
  • Watersheds
  • Riparian Buffers
  • Pipe network