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Female Reproductive System. Female Reproductive System. Objectives. Objectives. After studying this chapter you will be able to:. Name the parts of the female reproductive system and discuss the function of each part

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female reproductive system
Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System

objectives
Objectives

Objectives

After studying this chapter you will be able to:

  • Name the parts of the female reproductive system and discuss the function of each part
  • Define combining forms used in building words that relate to the female reproductive system
  • Identify the meaning of related abbreviations
  • Name the common diagnoses, clinical procedures, and laboratory tests used in treating the female reproductive system
objectives part 2
Objectives Part 2

Objectives cont'd

  • List and define the major pathological conditions of the female reproductive system and discuss the function of each part
  • Explain the meaning of surgical terms related to the female reproductive system
  • Recognize common pharmacological agents used in treating the female reproductive system
structure and function
Structure and Function

Structure and Function

The Female Reproductive System Functions to:

  • Produce female sex cells (ova) in the ovaries or gonads
  • Move the ova to the site of fertilization
  • Nurture fertilized ova until birth

Fimbriae

Uterine tube

Ovary

Uterus

Urinary bladder

Cervix

Symphysis pubis

Rectum

Urethra

Clitoris

Vagina

Labia minora

Labia majora

Anus

Vagina

path of an egg
Path of an Egg

Structure and Function

Path of an Egg in the Ovarian Cycle

Ovary

Egg

  • Ovaries release the eggs cyclically from the graafian follicle

Uterine tube

  • The fertilized egg is transported to the uterus where it develops into an embryo

Uterus

If not

fertilized

If fertilized

  • At the end of gestation the infant is born through the vagina or surgically through the abdomen in a Cesarean delivery

Expulsion

through

menstruation

Implantation

the female breast
The Female Breast

Structure and Function

The Female Breast

  • Also called mammary glands. It is an accessory organ of the female reproductive system
  • Provides milk to nurse the infant (lactation) after birth
  • Consists of mammary glands and ducts
  • The dark-pigmented area surrounding the nipple is called the areola

Rib

Mammary

glands

Adipose tissue

Lactiferous

duct

Mammary duct

reproductive organs
Reproductive Organs

Between the ages of 10-14 years, the first menstruation (menarche) occurs.

Menopause signals the end of the childbearing years.

Climacteric is the period leading up to menopause.

Structure and Function

Reproductive Organs

Ovaries

  • Two small solid oval structures
  • Located in the pelvic cavity
  • Produce ova and secrete female hormones
  • At birth most female ovaries contain between 200,000 to 400,000 immature ova (oocytes) in each ovary
uterus
Uterus
  • Consists of three parts
  • -Upper portion fundus
  • -Middle portion body
  • -Lower portion cervix

Structure and Function

The ovum, fertilized or not, will end up in the uterus.

Uterus

  • Is about 3 inches long
  • If fertilization does not occur, the ovum will be released along with the endometrium during menstruation.
  • Consists of three layers
  • -Outer layer (perimetrium)
  • -Middle layer (myometrium)
  • -Inner layer (endometrium)
  • If fertilization does occur, the ovum will attach to the endometrium where it will be nourished for the duration of gestation (about 40 weeks).
movement of an oocyte
Movement of an Oocyte

Structure and Function

Movement of an Oocyte During the Female Cycle

Fertilization

Sperm

cells

Egg cell

Sperm

nucleus

Egg nucleus

Secondary oocyte

Ovulation

Beginning of

implantation

2-cell

stage

4-cell

stage

8-cell

stage

external genitalia
External Genitalia

Structure and Function

External Genitalia

  • Known collectively as the vulva
  • Consists of the:
  • -mons pubis
  • -labia majora
  • -labia minora
  • -clitoris
  • -perineum

Clitoris

Labia

majora

Urethral

orifice

Labia

minora

Hymen

Vaginal

orifice

Bartholin’s

glands

(duct orifices)

Perineum

Bartholin’s glands secrete a fluid into the vagina and is located in the space between the labia minora

Anus

hormones and cycles
Hormones and Cycles

Hormones

and

Cycles

Structure and Function

estrogen

progesterone

prolactin

oxytocin

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

sample 28 day cycle
Sample 28-Day Cycle

Structure and Function

Sample 28-Day Cycle

LH

FSH

FSH

LH

Developing ovum

Ovulation

Breaking down of ovum

Days 1

7

14

21

28

Uterine activity

Estrogen

Progesterone

Progesterone

Estrogen

Thickness of

endometrium

Menstruation

Build-up to ovulation

Ovulation

Post-ovulation period

Menstruation

preventing fertilization
Preventing Fertilization

Forms of Contraception

  • Condom
  • Intrauterine device (IUD)
  • Spermicide
  • Diaphragm
  • Rhythm method

Structure and Function

Preventing Fertilization

At the point of ovulation, fertilization can be prevented with contraception.

NOTE:

High doses of estrogen and progesterone can prevent ovulation.

fertilization
Fertilization

Structure and Function

Fertilization

As a result of sexual intercourse (coitus), fertilization may occur.

chorion

para

gravida

Pregnancy

amniotic fluid

umbilical cord

afterbirth

combining forms abbreviations amni
Combining Forms & Abbreviations (amni)

amnion

cervix

vagina

vulva

milk

female

uterus

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Meaning

Combining Form

amni(o)

cervic(o)

colp(o)

episi(o)

galact(o)

gynec(o)

hyster(o)

combining forms abbreviations lact
Combining Forms & Abbreviations (lact)

milk

breast

breast

menstruation

uterus

egg

ovary

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Meaning

Combining Form

lact(o)

mamm(o)

mast(o)

men(o)

metr(o)

oo

oophor(o)

combining forms abbreviations ov
Combining Forms & Abbreviations (ov)

egg

ovary

perineum

fallopian tube

uterus

vagina

vulva

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Meaning

Combining Form

ov(i)

ovari(o)

perine(o)

salping(o)

uter(o)

vagin(o)

vulv(o)

combining forms abbreviations ab
Combining Forms & Abbreviations (AB)

abortion

alpha-fetoprotein

abdominal hysterectomy

carcinoma in situ

cesarean section

cesarean section

cervix

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Abbreviation

Meaning

AB

AFP

AH

CIS

CS

C-section

CX

combining forms abbreviations d c
Combining Forms & Abbreviations (D&C)

dilation and curettage

diethylstilbestrol

dysfunctional uterine bleeding

endocervical curettage

expected date of confinement

endometrial biopsy

estrogen replacement therapy

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Abbreviation

Meaning

D&C

DES

DUB

ECC

EDC

EMB

ERT

combining forms abbreviations fht
Combining Forms & Abbreviations (FHT)

fetal heart tones

follicle-stimulating hormone

gravida (pregnancy)

gynecology

human chorionic gonadotropin

hormone replacement therapy

hystersalpingography

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Abbreviation

Meaning

FHT

FSH

G

gyn

HCG

HRT

HSG

combining forms abbreviations hso
Combining Forms & Abbreviations (HSO)

hysterosalpingoophorectomy

intrauterine device

luteinizing hormone

last menstrual period

multiparous

obstetrics

oral contraceptive pill

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Abbreviation

Meaning

HSO

IUD

LH

LMP

multip

OB

OCP

combining forms abbreviations p
Combining Forms & Abbreviations (P)

para (live births)

papanicolaou smear

pelvic inflammatory disease

previous menstrual period

premenstrual syndrome

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Abbreviation

Meaning

P

Pap smear

PID

PMP

PMS

combining forms abbreviations primip
Combining Forms & Abbreviations (primip)

primiparous

total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

toxic shock syndrome

uterine contractions

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Abbreviation

Meaning

primip

TAH-BSO

TSS

UC

diagnostic procedural laboratory terms
Diagnostic, Procedural & Laboratory Terms

Diagnostic, Procedural, and

Laboratory Terms

Gynecologists are physicians who diagnose and treat disorders of the female reproductive system.

An obstetrician diagnoses and treats both normal and abnormal pregnancies and childbirth.

vaginal cervical examinations
Vaginal & Cervical Examinations

Hysteroscopy

Culdoscopy

-use of an endoscope to examine the contents of the pelvic cavity

-use of a lighted instrument to examine the interior of the uterus

Diagnostic, Procedural, and

Laboratory Terms

Examination of the Vagina and Cervix

  • Papanicolaou Smear
  • -gathers cells from the cervix to detect cervical and vaginal cancer
  • -speculum is used
  • Colposcopy
  • -a lighted instrument used to examine the cervix and vagina

Other Examinations

mammography
Mammography

Diagnostic, Procedural, and

Laboratory Terms

Mammography

  • X-ray of the breast, used to screen for breast cancer
  • Recommended age differs based on family history, physical condition and the recommending body (AMA, ACS, and NIH)
pregnancy test
Pregnancy Test

Diagnostic, Procedural, and

Laboratory Terms

Pregnancy Test

  • A blood or urine test to detect human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).
  • Also can be detected by palpation of the uterus during an internal examination by the gynecologist or obstetrician.

Fertility Test

  • Hysterosalpingography is an examination of the uterus and uterine tubes following the injection of a contrast medium.
pathological terms
Pathological Terms

Pathological Terms

The premature end of a pregnancy is called abortion.

Types of abortions

  • Habitual abortion
  • Spontaneous abortion
  • Missed abortion

Pregnancy Complications

  • ectopic pregnancy
  • abruptio placentae
  • placenta previa
  • preeclampsia
  • Rh incompatibility
  • breech presentation
pathological terms part 2
Pathological Terms Part 2

Pathological Terms

Dysmenorrhea

Amenorrhea

Painful cramping

Absence of menstruation

Menstrual Abnormalities

Menorrhagia

Oligomenorrhea

Excessive menstrual bleeding

Scanty menstrual flow

Metrorrhagia

Menometrorrhagia

Bleeding between periods

Irregular and excessive bleeding during or between periods

pathological terms part 3
Pathological Terms Part 3

Pathological Terms

Inflammatory and Infectious Conditions

Cervicitis

Mastitis

Salpingitis

Vaginitis

Toxic Shock Syndrome

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Human papilloma virus
  • Chlamydia
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhea
  • Herpes II
surgical terms
Surgical Terms

Surgical Terms

Surgical Procedures

Surgical Removal

  • Salpingotomy
  • -incision into one of the fallopian tubes
  • Tubal Ligation
  • -method of female sterilization
  • Cryosurgery
  • -using cold temperatures to destroy tissue
  • Cauterization
  • -using hot temperatures to destroy tissue
  • Conization
  • -removal of a cone-shaped section of the cervix
  • Aspiration
  • -type of biopsy in which fluid is removed from the breast
  • Hysterectomy
  • -removal of the uterus
  • Myomectomy
  • -removal of fibroid tumors
  • Mastectomy
  • -removal of a breast
pharmacology
Pharmacology

Pharmacology

Birth Control Agents

Hormonal Agents

  • Birth control pills
  • Implants
  • Abortifacients
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
  • Oxytocin

Note: A tocolytic agent stops labor contractions

apply your knowledge
Apply Your Knowledge

Apply Your Knowledge

Which of the following structures is responsible for releasing the mature ova during ovulation?

A. uterus

B. fallopian tubes

C. ovaries

Answer: C. ovaries

apply your knowledge part 2
Apply Your Knowledge Part 2

Apply Your Knowledge

The uterus consists of three linings. Which lining is shed monthly during menstruation?

A. endometrium

B. perimetrium

C. myometrium

Answer: A. endometrium

apply your knowledge part 3
Apply Your Knowledge Part 3

Apply Your Knowledge

Margaret is about to give birth to her third child. She has been pregnant four times. Which of the following would correctly describe her pregnancy history?

A. gravida 3 para 4

B. gravida 3 para 3

C. gravida 4 para 3

Answer: C. gravida 4 para 3

apply your knowledge part 4
Apply Your Knowledge Part 4

Apply Your Knowledge

The presence of the HCG hormone in the blood or urine would indicate which of the following conditions?

A. cervical cancer

B. pregnancy

C. onset of menstruation

Answer: B. pregnancy