The Plague 1348 Taylor Stockstad "...Such fear and fanciful notions took possession of the living that almost all of them adopted the same cruel policy, which was entirely to avoid the sick and everything belonging to them. By so doing, each one thought he would secure his own safety.” - Giovanni Boccaccio
There are three forms of the Plague • Bubonic • Pneumonic • Septicemic
I will focus on the Bubonic Plague • It derives its name from the swellings or buboes.
It is believed the plague originated in Asia, and moved west with Mongol armies and traders.
It had a devastating affect on Europe • The Population decreasedby25% to 50%
We can still see the memory of its impact today Ring a-round the rosy Pocket full of posies Ashes, ashes! We all fall down!
The reservoir of the plague bacteria is normally rodents. The transmission of the Plague from Rodents was caused by the Oriental Rat Flea.
Symptoms of The Bubonic Plague • Symptoms normally took around1-7 days to appear • Symptoms included: • Headaches • Nausea • Aching joints • Fever • Vomiting Then. . .
A Sign of Impending Death Would Appear • These signs were swellings, called buboes, that appeared on a victim's neck, armpits or groin.
All forms were caused by a rod -shaped bacterium called Yersiniapestis.
The Plague bacteria has the ability to avoid the innate immune response, the body's front line of defense.
YersiniaPestiscan rapidly kill the host due to it’s machinery. • The bacteria can resistphagocytosisby injecting proteins called YOPS (Yersinia Outer Proteins) into macrophages and other immune cells. • Thus, it rapidly spreads into the blood stream Reaching to the lymphnodes, where the swelling occurs and killing the host.
The Plague still affects the U.S. • In the United States during the 1980s plague cases averaged about 18 per year. • Most of the cases occurred in persons under 20 years of age. • About 1 in 7 persons with plague died.
An Effective Treatment does Exist Today • The drugs of choice are streptomycin or gentamycin, but a number of other antibiotics are also effective.
The Plague Epidemic is still a Big Problem in Developing Countries. • Rural and urban areas of developing countries often have problems with rat infestation and are put at a higher risk of bubonic plague.
Bibiliography • http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/plague.htm • http://www.insecta-inspecta.com/fleas/bdeath/http://news.softpedia.com/news/How-Does-the-Plague-Bacteria-Attack-37281.shtml • http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/cot/t2w13blackplaguep1ab.htm • http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/plague/index.htm • http://whitefolksgreed.blogspot.com/2009/01/islamofile-011809-al-qaeda-camp-in.html • http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/black_death_of_1348_to_1350.htm • http://shkrobius.livejournal.com/237277.html?thread=1676253