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HEARING LOSS. DR SUDEEP K.C. CLASSIFICATION OF HEARING LOSS. AUDITORY PATHWAYS. CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS . Characteristics of Conductive hearing loss are: Negative Rinne test(BC>AC) Weber lateralised to defective ear. Normal absolute bone conduction. Low frequencies affected more.

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hearing loss

HEARING LOSS

DR SUDEEP K.C.

conductive hearing loss
CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS
  • Characteristics of Conductive hearing loss are:
  • Negative Rinne test(BC>AC)
  • Weber lateralised to defective ear.
  • Normal absolute bone conduction.
  • Low frequencies affected more.
  • Audiometry shows bone conduction is better than air conduction with A-B gap.
  • Loss is more than 60 db.
causes of conductive loss
Causes of Conductive loss
  • Congenital causes.
  • Acquired causes.

CONGENITAL CAUSES:

  • Meatal atresia.
  • Fixation of the stapes foot plate.
  • Fixation of malleus head.
  • Ossicular discontinuity
slide7

ACQUIRED CAUSES:

  • Any obstruction in the ear canal E.g. Wax, Foreign body, tumor etc.
  • Perforation of TM- traumatic or infective.
  • Fluid in the middle ear-

Otitis media , Haemotympanum.

  • Mass in the middle ear.
  • Disruption of ossicles – Trauma, CSOM.
  • Fixation of ossicles – Otosclerosis, Tympanosclerosis.
management
Management
  • Removal of Canal obstruction.
  • Removal of the fluid.
  • Removal of mass from middle ear.
  • Stapedectomy - Otosclerotic fixation of stapes footplate.
  • Tympanoplasty.
  • Hearing Aid.
tympanoplasty
TYMPANOPLASTY

It is an operation to :

  • Eradicate disease in the middle ear.
  • To reconstruct hearing mechanism.
  • If there is only repairing of TM – Myringoplasty.
  • If there is reconstruction of Ossicular chain- Ossiculoplasty.
  • If both TM and Ossicular chain repair- Tympanoplasty.
myringoplasty
MYRINGOPLASTY
  • It is the repair of tympanic membrane .
  • Graft material: Temporalis fascia or perichondrium and sometimes from the cadaveric tympanic membrane, vein, fascia.
  • Repair can be done by two techniques:
  • Under lay technique.
  • Over lay technique.
ossicular reconstruction
OSSICULAR RECONSTRUCTION
  • It is required when there is destruction or fixation of Ossicular chain.
  • Most common defect is long process of the Incus.

Repair of ossicular chain:

  • Can be achieved by the use of autograft incus or cartilage, or homograft ossicles or the prosthetic implants made of ceramic or teflon.
sensorineural hearing loss
SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS

Characteristics of SNHL are:

  • Positive Rinne test (AC>BC).
  • Weber lateralised to better ear.
  • Bone conduction reduced in ABC test.
  • More often involving the high frequencies.
  • No gap between the air and bone conduction curve on audiometry.
  • Loss may exceed 60 db.
slide15

CAUSES OF SNHL:

  • Congenital.
  • Acquired:
  • Infection of the labyrinth.
  • Trauma to the labyrinth or VIII nerve.
  • Noise induced hearing loss.
  • Ototoxic drugs.
  • Presbycusis.
  • Meniere’s disease.
  • Acoustic Neuroma.
diagnosis
DIAGNOSIS:
  • History.
  • Severity of deafness.
  • Types of audiogram-whether loss is of high frequency or of low frequency.
  • Site of the lesion- Cochlear , Retro –Cochlear and Central.
management17
MANAGEMENT
  • Early detection of SNHL is important as measures can be taken to stop its progress, reverse it or to start an early rehabilitation programme.
  • SYPHILIS- High dose of penicillin and steroids.
  • HYPOTHYROIDISM- Replacement therapy.
  • SEROUS LABYRINTHITIS- Reverse by attention to middle ear infection.
  • MENIERE’S DISEASE- Early management can prevent further episodes of vertigo and hearing loss.
  • OTOTOXIC DRUGS should be discontinued.
  • REHABILITATION.