What is Hearing Loss? • Three categories generally describe Hearing Loss: • Type of Hearing Loss • Degree of Hearing Loss • Configuration of Hearing Loss • It is important to diagnose and treat children as early as possible!
Types of Hearing Loss • Conductive Hearing Loss • Sensorineural Hearing Loss • Mixed Hearing Loss • Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder
I. Conductive Hearing Loss • Sound waves are not transmitted properly from the outer ear to the middle ear. • Affects the volume of word tone. • Ex. Child may hear loud but not soft noises • Hearing can often be corrected medically or surgically • Some Possible Causes/Signs: • Fluid in the middle ear from a cold • Ear infections (Otitis Media) • Allergies (Serous Otitis Media) • Impacted Earwax (Cerumen) • Absence or malformation of the outer ear, ear canal, or middle ear
II. Sensorineural Hearing Loss • Damage is done to the inner ear, or to the nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain. • Permanent hearing loss • Affects ability to understand speech • Sound may be unclear • Some Possible Causes/Signs: • Illness • Aging • Genetic or Hereditary Hearing Loss • Head Trauma • Exposure to loud noise • Malformation of the inner ear
III. Mixed Hearing Loss • Combination of conductive hearing loss and sensorineural hearing loss. • Damage/Nonfunctional outer or middle ear, and inner ear, or auditory nerve.
IV. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) • Common problem in newborns • Diagnosed in the first few months of life • May have trouble distinguishing sounds and understanding speech clearly • Transmission problem • Inner ear makes sound disorganized when it reaches the brain. • Causes unknown and can develop at any age • Higher risks for ANSD include: • Premature birth • Condition is present in family history • Kids with ANSD can develop strong language and communication skills • Medical devices • Therapy • Visual communication techniques
Degree of Hearing Loss Classification System in decibels
Configuration of Hearing Loss • Hearing loss may have a pattern of frequencies • Configuration in high tones = High-Frequency Loss • Configuration in low tones = Low-Frequency Loss • Other descriptors for hearing loss: • Bilateral vs. unilateral • Hearing loss is both ears vs. one ear • Symmetrical vs. asymmetrical • Degree and configuration of hearing loss is the same in each ear vs. different in each ear • Progressive vs. sudden hearing loss • Hearing loss worsens over time vs. rapid hearing loss Sudden hearing loss requires immediate medical attention • Fluctuating vs. stable hearing loss • Hearing loss changes over time, it may get better or worse
Teaching Strategies/Modifications • To improve communication with Hearing-Impaired Children: • Do not have fans blowing, music playing, motors running, or any noise that may cause distraction • Provide individualized instruction • Make sure the student can see your face when speaking • Bend down the child’s level so you are more easily heard and understood • Use gestures • Hang posters • Use pictures to illustrate what is said • Role model and demonstrate when teaching
Work Cited • auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). (2011). Retrieved January 28, 2011, from Kids Health: http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=familydoctor&lic=44&cat_id=192&article_set=61053 • Hearing Loss. (2011). Retrieved January 28, 2011, from American Association of Speech-Language-Hearing: http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Hearing-Loss/ • Marotz, L. R. (2009). Health, Safety, and Nutrition for the young Child. Delmar: Cengage Learning.