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Body Composition. Body frame-size (BFS). Female: 10.357*Ht. + (biacromial + bitrochanteric) Male: 8.239*Ht. + (biacromial + bitrochanteric) . Body frame-size (BFS). BFS Limitations. Unvalidated estimates of body frame size Developed primarily from white population

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body frame size bfs
Body frame-size (BFS)

Female:

10.357*Ht. + (biacromial + bitrochanteric)

Male:

8.239*Ht. + (biacromial + bitrochanteric)

bfs limitations
BFS Limitations
  • Unvalidated estimates of body frame size
  • Developed primarily from white population
  • Focus on mortality data - not obesity related comorbidities
  • No assessment of body composition
slide5
BMI

Body mass (kg)  height (m2)

optimal range: 20 -25

 or  from optimal range   of disease*

* CAD, HTN, CVA, DM, CA, etc.

slide6
BMI

Determine the BMI for:

  • Male
  • weight = 100 kg
  • height = 2 m
slide7
BMI

Limitations

  • fails to consider composition of body
  • fat
slide8
BMI
  • Generally related to body composition
  • Highly correlated w/ relative body fat
  • probably provides a better estimate of obesity
slide9
BMI

Overweight (1998)

  • males  27.8  25
  • females  27.3  25
  • obese: > 30
population overweight13
Population Overweight

1976-80

  • 25% of all US adults  20

1988-91

  • 33.4%
  • 47.2% Mexican-American women
  • 48.6% African-American women
leanness in women
Leanness in Women

Active low weight women are at risk of:

  • delayed onset of menstruation
  • irregular menstrual cycle (oligomenorrhea)
  • cessation of menses (amenorrhea)
leanness in women15
Leanness in Women

Hypotheses:

  • Exercise Stress (disruption of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal)
  • Energy Availability
    • energy reserve inadequate to sustain pregnancy
    • < 17% cessation / 22% normal cycle
body composition17
Body Composition

Total Body-Fat (Fat-Mass) = Essential Fat + Storage Fat

Essential Fat (survival)

  • CNS
  • Bone Marrow
  • Organs (heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, etc.)
fat free mass vs lbm
Fat-Free Mass vs. LBM

LBM includes essential fat

  • LBM = Body Mass - Storage Fat

FFM excludes essential fat

  • FFM = Body Mass - Total Body Fat
body composition21
Body Composition

100 kg male w/ 20% body fat

  • Body mass: 100 kg
  • Storage Body Fat: 100 * .20 = 20 kg
  • Lean Body Mass = 100 - 20 = 80 kg

- includes 5% essential fat

body composition22
Body Composition
  • Fat Free Mass = Body Mass - Total Fat Mass
  • Total Fat Mass = 20 kg + 4 kg (essential fats)
  • Fat Free Mass = 100 - 24 = 76 kg
importance of body fat
Importance of Body Fat

Diet

Exercise

Combination

measuring body fat
Measuring Body Fat

Direct

  • chemical analysis
  • dissection

Indirect

measuring body fat26
Measuring Body Fat

Hydrostatic Weighing / Densitometry

  • body volume = loss of weight in H20 (scale wt. - underH2O wt)
  • “gold standard”
  • based on assumptions
measuring body fat27
Measuring Body Fat

Skinfolds/Fatfolds

Girth Measurements

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)

  • conduction is better thru non-fat
  •  H20   impedance   % body fat
measuring body fat28
Measuring Body Fat

Near-Infrared Interactance (NIR)

  • Futrex-5000
  • fiber optic
  • biceps of dominant arm
  • validity????
measuring body fat29
Measuring Body Fat

US

Arm X-Ray (3 site)

CT scan

MRI

DEXA (Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry)

- bony mineral content

- r = 0.91 - 0.92

desirable body mass
Desirable Body Mass

Males

  • strive for 15%
  • < 20%

Females

  • strive for 25%
  • < 30%
desirable body mass31
Desirable Body Mass
  • 200 lbs. individual
  • Wants to reduce % body fat from 20%  10%
  • What is this individual’s desirable weight?
desirable body mass32
Desirable Body Mass

Desirable Body Mass (DSB) =

fat-free body mass / (1.00 - desired % fat)

Current fat-free body mass =

200 - (200 * 0.20)

160 lbs.

desirable body mass33
Desirable Body Mass

Desirable Body Mass (DSB) =

fat-free body mass / (1.00 - desired % fat)

DSB = (160 / (1.00 - 0.10)

160 lbs. / .90

178 lbs.

desirable body mass34
Desirable Body Mass

What is the loss in body weight?

  • 200 lbs. - 178 lbs. = 22 lbs.
general guidelines for weight loss athlete
General Guidelines for Weight Loss- Athlete
  • < 2 lbs./week --> preserve FFM
  • 200 - 500 kcal < daily energy expenditure
  •  resistance and endurance training