Biography of Józef Piłsudski.
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Józef Klemens Piłsudski was born on December 5th 1867, as a fourth child of Józef and Maria from Bilewiczów. He was growing up in a house of patriot notion, in the Vilnius suburbs. After his parents finacial situation had changed to worse, they moved to Vilnius. As a student, Piłsudski and his brother established a self-study group, in order to support Polish students undergoing a process of Russification. He began to be opposition active after he finished school and moved to Kharkov to study medicine.
Young Józef Piłsduski
During the time in university, he didn't evade communication with people who preached independence quotes and slogans. He was associated with a Russian anti czarism (carat) organisation, whichfavoured radical methods to fight the government. Piłsudski himself didn't reveal his favour and was never a member of such an organisation. He took part in a preparation of an assassination of a Russian Tsar, unconsciously. He was arrested and sentenced to be sent to Siberia in 1887. He came back in 1892.
Between 1892 and 1914 he devoted himself to independence organisations. Piłsudski was especially active in the Polish Socialist Party, but he wasn't happy with every aspect of this organisation leadership programme. Firstly, he was taking part mainly in publishing activities, then preperation of the arms on a wide scale. He showed that he is an organised type of person and also someone who chooses the radical actions, rather than trying to come to an agreement. During that time Piłsudski was married for the first time. Marriage with a PPS activist Maria Juszkiewiczowa wasn't a happy one. An evidence of that is his informal marriage to Aleksandra Szczerbińska.
Maria Juszkiewiczowa Piłsudska
Aleksandra Szczerbińska i
The assassination in Sarajevo and the beginning of the Austrian-Serbian war, meant a lot to Józef. Invaders of Poland were finally in conflict and this was a great chance for a rising and fight for Polish independence. First action of Piłsudski was a creation of 1st Personel Company, which didn't forecast a success. 1st Personel Company led by their commander crossed the border of Russian partition boundaries. Starting a riot there was harder than they thought. Polish nation wasn't strong enough for another great and sudden attack. Piłsudski wasn't a type of person whom people would give their lives for. But even the opposition couldn't take back the success that Piłsudski had achieved. He was a very efficient leader throughout the warfare. Józef Piłsudski was loved by his soldiers and admired by the civilians, who saw him as a great fighter for freedom and a victim of persecutions (prisoner in Magdeburg).
His private life was dominated by a birth of his daughter Wanda and his return to Catholicism.
After Poland had finally retrieved independence, Józef Piłsudski as a head of the State of Poland, had to take on one of the most important function in the risen country. He didn't get a chance to carefree use his freedom. His position wasn't at its best. Loved by his soldiers commander was perceived as an enemy by large groups of politicians. As a head of the Polish state he had to take part in politics, but also in arms reinforcement. The conflict with Soviet Russia could lead to a breakdown of just new state of Poland. The worst scenario didn't take place, instead, the great Warsaw fight called "The Wisła Miracle", was one of the greatest fights of polish army in the whole history. After parliamentary elections, Marshall began to back off from politics and later from the military duties. As a head of State he knew he couldn't lead the country forever. The president couldn't be just a representative. His political ambitions weren't satisfied but he could now lead stable private life. In 1920 his second daughter Jadwiga was born. After the death of his first wife he could finally marry his partner Aleksandra.
„The Wisła Miracle”
People said that Marshall would be back to politics few months after he had retired. This had happened towards the end of the year 1925. In may 1926, nightmares of the leaders of opposition came true. Piłsudski entered Warsaw leading his soldiers and took the leadership, he wasn't interested in being a president though. The next few years of his life were especially rich in fights with opposite politics (not always led in democratic order), reinforcing his political position and also constant struggles with his health. The last battle was lost on May 12th 1935, when Marshall was defeated by a cancer related illness (liver cancer or stomach cancer). The body of Marshall rests in Wawel castle and his heart in the grave of his mother in Vilnius cementary in Rossa.