Building Use and Size Buildings are available in many types and sizes. Large, specialized buildings should be planned and built by professionals. Smaller, simple designs can be constructed by the owner/manager as long as good building principles are used.
Building Types • Building types can be classified by their construction design. • Pole building • Post and girder (Timber frame) • Rigid frame • Wood • Metal (Fig-40-20) • Light frame • Quonset
Building Type-Pole • Gets its name from the use of poles for the wall construction. • Inexpensive, popular style of building. • Requires careful engineering when walls are not enclosed. Purlins Rafters Roofing Siding Braces Girts P.P.T. Poles Girders P.P.T. Skirts
Building Type-Post & Girder(Timber Framing) • The craft of timber framing reached it's maturity in Europe in the 1400's. • Timber frame construction uses massive timbers that are tightly fitted together with mortise and tenon joinery, and then secured with hardwood pegs. • Requires more skill than modern wooed frame construction. • Produces a very durable building.
Building Types- Rigid Frame • Rigid frame construction has become popular for many Ag buildings. • Two studs and two rafters are combined to form a structural unit with a gable shape. • Structure is free of interior supports and trusses. • Simple construction. • Comparable costs to other clear span construction methods.
Building Types- Rigid Frame-cont. • Wood • Plywood gussets are used at each joint to form a unit. • Steel • Preformed members are bolted or welded together.
Building Types-Light Frame • Three types of light frame construction are used: • Platform • Balloon • Slab • Platform more common than balloon for residences • Slab is very common for Ag Buildings and residences.
Two Story Light Frame Construction TermsFooting Continuous concrete or masonry pad. If used, installed before the foundation. • Supports the foundation wall. • Size of footing depends on the load of building and the load bearing characteristics of the soil. When would a footing not be used?
Light Frame Construction Terms Foundation • Concrete or masonry wall that supports the building. • Must either extend below frost depth or be engineered for above frost line. • Should include anchor bolts to attach building to foundation. What other types of attachments systems can be used?
Light Frame Construction Terms Sill plate • Wooden member attached to the foundation. • Pressure treated lumber recommended.
Light Frame Construction Terms Joists • The floor joists provide the support for the floor. • Size and spacing determined by the designed floor load. • Rim joist attaches to end of floor joists to fill in the space and tie the ends together. Why are diagonal braces used?
Light Frame Construction Terms Sub floor • The sub floor is attached to the floor joists. • Plywood, MDF or particle board is commonly used. • Concrete sub floors are also used.
Light Frame Construction Terms Sole Plate • The sole plate is fastened to the end of the studs before it attached to the sub floor. • Anchors the wall to the sub floor. What is the difference between a sole plate and a sill plate?
Light Frame Construction Terms Studs • The studs form the structure for the walls. • Spacing and size is determined by the loads, desired insulation value and uses of the building. • Different stud arrangements are used to attach the walls together at the corners.
Studs-cont. Different construction techniques are used to attach the walls together at the corners. Which one is best?
Light Frame Construction Terms Plate and Top Plate • The first top plate attached to the ends of the studs. • The second top plate is nailed to the first one. It is used to increase the load bearing capacity. • Note: the plates overlap at the corners to help tie the walls together.
Light Frame Construction Terms Brace • The purpose of the brace is to reinforce the building ability to resist “racking” forces. • Racking forces are parallel to the wall. • Braces are set in the the edge of the studs. • This method is not very common today. Force Force What has taken the place of the brace?
Light Frame Construction Terms Sheathing • Sheathing is the first layer of material on the outside surface of the walls. • Sheathing may be sheet material, plywood, MDF. etc. or dimensioned lumber. • Sheet material is more common.
Light Frame Construction Terms Siding • Wooden siding boards are the traditional material for the outside surface of the wall. • Vinyl and other materials can also be used to enhance weather resistance. • Residences may use brick in place of siding. • Ag structures usually use metal sheet material. • When the building is just a single story, the ceiling joists and rafters would be next.
Light Frame Construction Terms Joists • When the building is multistory, the parts from the joists up is repeated. • In platform construction, the process repeats for each floor. • Joists are placed to form the ceiling for the first story and the floor for the second story.
Light Frame Construction Terms Second Story Sub Floor • A second sub floor is installed on the second story joists. • May be the same material or different material from the first story sub floor.
Light Frame Construction Terms Second Story Sole Plate • The second story sole plate serves the same function as the first story. • It attaches the second story studs to the floor.
Light Frame Construction Terms Secondary Story Studs • The second story studs form the walls for the second story. • Usually the same spacing as the first story, but lumber may be smaller dimensions.
Light Frame Construction Terms Second Story Top Plate • The second story top plate serves the same function as the first story plate--support the joists (floor or ceiling). • In a two story building, the second story plates also supports the rafters.
Light Frame Construction Terms Ceiling Joists • The ceiling joists provide an attachment for the ceiling material and supports attic loads. • Insulation • Storage
Light Frame Construction Terms Rafters • The rafters support the roof materials. • Rafter lumber dimensions are determined by the load on the roof and the distance between supports.
Light Frame Construction Terms Cripple Studs • The term “cripple” is often used to describe a building part that is shorter than or different than similar parts in the building. • In this example it is used to describe the studs the run from the top plate to the rafter.
Light Frame Construction Terms Balloon Construction • Balloon construction has four (4) major differences from platform. • The studs are continuous from the bottom sill to the last top plate. • The sub floor is installed after the studs are in place. • Fire stops are used to enclose the space between the studs at each floor. • The second story joists are supported by a rim joist.
Light Frame Construction TermsSlab • In slab style buildings the concrete floor is placed on top of the stem wall. • The remainder of the building is built following platform or balloon construction. • Wood structure must be attached to concrete. • Height of stem wall varies. • Utilities that go through the floor must be in place before the floor is poured. Concrete Slab Stem Wall Footing
Roof Designs • Different roof designs are used for agricultural buildings. • Several factors can influence the design: • Building use • Costs • Available materials • Skill of builder • Personal preference • Eight (8) common roof designs: • Shed • Hip • Gable • Gambrel • Gothic • Monitor • Half monitor • Quonset
Roof Designs--Shed • Shed • Simplest to construct • Single slope • Commonly used for sheds and additions.
Roof Designs-Hip • Hip • Strongest • More difficult to construct • More popular with houses than farm buildings
Roof Designs-Gable • Gable • Two slopes • Most common
Roof Designs--Gambrel • Gambrel • Most useable space under the roof. • More difficult than gable • Traditional barn, but also used for houses.
Roof Designs--Gothic • Gothic • Modification of Gambrel • Arches must be bent, laminated or composite construction
Roof Design--Monitor • Monitor • More difficult to build • Allows sunlight into middle of building. • Improves natural ventilation
Roof Designs—Half Monitor • Half Monitor • Popular for chicken houses • Less difficult to build than monitor
Roof Designs--Quonset • Quonset • Very popular in agriculture • Used for many military buildings because of speed and ease of construction. • Newer design is self supporting