Chapter 15 respiratory system
1 / 26

Chapter 15 Respiratory System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Chapter 15 Respiratory System. 1. Components ---nose ---pharynx ---larynx ---trachea ---bronchi ---lung. 2. Trachea and main bronchi. three layers 1) Mucosa : ---epithelium: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium ---lamina propria: CT, contain LC, PC, MC, BV, LV.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 15 Respiratory System' - lavonn

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 15 respiratory system l.jpg

Chapter 15 Respiratory System

Slide2 l.jpg

1. Components







2 trachea and main bronchi l.jpg
2. Trachea and main bronchi

three layers


---epithelium: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

---lamina propria: CT, contain LC, PC, MC, BV, LV

Slide4 l.jpg

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epi.

  • ciliated cell: columnar, cilia

  • goblet cell

  • basal cell:

    -pyramidal, basally-located

    -undifferentiated cell→ciliated cell or goblet cell

Slide5 l.jpg

  • brush cell:

    -columnar, microvilli,

    -EM: RER, no g.

    -function: not very clear, may be

    i.become into ciliated cell

    ii.receive sensory stimuli-epitheliodendritic synapse

Slide6 l.jpg

  • diffuse neuroendocrine cell:

    -less, pyramidal

    -EM: dense-core g.-small granule cell

    neuroepithelial body: cell + NF

    -Function: secret hormones to regulate contract of SM and secretion of gland

    i. 5-hydroxytryptamine(serotonin)

    ii. calcitonin

    iii. enkephalin

    * clear basement membrane

Slide7 l.jpg

2) Submucosa:

LCT, with BV, LV and N

  • tracheal gland: mixed

  • diffuse LT and LN

    * S Ig A = secretory component (secreted by epi. cell) + Ig A ( produced by plasma cell)

Slide8 l.jpg

3) Adventitia:

  • cartilage ring: 16-20 “C ” shaped

  • circular ligament: elastic F

  • SM- posterior part( membrane part): SM, elastic F, tracheal gland

3 lung l.jpg
3. Lung

---paired organ, located in thoracic cavity

Slide10 l.jpg

1) General structure:

---capsule: visceral layer of pleura- serous membrane-CT + mesothelium

---parenchyma: all branches of bronchi and alveoli( right 3, left 2)

---interstitia: CT, BV, LV, N

Slide11 l.jpg

* branchi →intrapulmonary bronchial tree( lobar bronchial tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)

D < 1mm D < 0.5 mm

→bronchioles →terminal bronchioles →respiratory bronchioles →alveolar duct →alveolar sac → alveoli

* pulmonary lobule: one bronchioles and its all branches and all alveoli

  • cone or pyramidal-shaped: apex pointed toward the hilum and basal(1.0 cm in D) faced the surface

  • more CT between them

Slide12 l.jpg

2) tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)Conducting portion

① from lobar bronchi to small bronchi

---Regulation of simplification: (gradually)

  • mucosa:

    -epi. : become thinner

    -goblet cell ↓

    -lamina propria: thinner, SM ↑

  • submucosa: gland ↓

  • adventitia: cartilage→cartilage →decreasing

Slide13 l.jpg

tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)bronchiole: D < 1mm

---continuous to change

  • goblet cell, Gland, cartilage ↓ or disappear

  • smooth muscle ↑,circular mucosa plica ↑

Slide14 l.jpg

tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)terminal bronchiole: D < 0.5 mm

---goblet cell, gland, cartilage disappear

---SM: form a whole layer of circumferential SM


  • simple columnar epi.: two types of cells

  • A layer of SM

Slide15 l.jpg

i. tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi) ciliated cell

ii.secreting cell: Clara cell


  • dome-shaped apical

  • SER

  • Secreting G: contains proteolytase and oxidase


  • dissolve the mucus

  • biological thansformation

  • undifferentiated cell → ciliated cell

Slide16 l.jpg

3) respiratory portion tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)

①respiratory bronchiole

---similar to terminal bronchioles:

  • simple ciliated columnar epi.

  • smooth muscle

    ---place where connect with alveoli: gradual changing

  • simple cuboidal epi. →simple squamous epi.

  • less SM, elastic F

Slide17 l.jpg

tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)alveolar duct: 20-60 alveoli connect with it

---wall: hard to see- opening part between two alveoli

  • simple cuboidal epi. or squamous epi.

  • SM: single, EF- knob-liked structure

Slide18 l.jpg

tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)alveolar sac:

---many alveoli open to it

---no proper wall, no knob-liked structure

Slide19 l.jpg

tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)alveoli:

---polygonal, with opening sac- 0.2mm in D, 300-400 million/per lung, total area: 70-80mm2


  • epi. and basal lamina

  • alveolar septum: CT with BV, EF

Slide20 l.jpg

  • alveolur epi tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi):

    ---type I alveolar cell:

    LM: flattened, 0.2um, N: round


  • plasmalemmal vesicles

  • tight junction

    Function: constitute the blood-air barrier

Slide21 l.jpg

--- tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)type II alveolar cell: scattered, 5-8/per alveoles


  • cuboidal or round, with round N

  • paler- stained, foamy cytoplasm

Slide22 l.jpg

EM: tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)

  • secreting granules: Osmiophilic multilamellar body

    -0.1-1.0 um

    -contains: phospholipid, glycosaminoglycan and protein

  • microvilli, mito, lysosome, RER, Golgi


    i. secreting surfactant

    ii.differentiated into type I alveolar cell

Slide23 l.jpg

b. tree, segmental bronchi and small bronchi)alveolar septum: CT

  • EF

  • Fibroblast, macrophage, plasma cell, mast cell

  • LV, N

  • capillary: endothelium + basement membrane

Slide24 l.jpg

* Blood-air barrier: the structure through which the gaseous exchange takes place

---0.2-0.5 um


  • a layer of liquid

  • type I alveolar cell and basement M

  • CT

  • capillary endothelial cell and BM

Slide25 l.jpg

c. exchange takes placealveolar pore: 10-15 um

---equalize( balance) the air-pressure between alveoli

---lober pneumonia- bacteria or inflammatory spread through the pore

Slide26 l.jpg

d. exchange takes placealveolar marcophage: monocytes- MPS

---dust cell: macrophage which phagocytose carbon or duct particles

---heart failure cell: when lung congested(edema), the alveolar marcophage phagocytose RBC, digest the hemoglobin into hemosiderin(pigment) and accumulated them within macrophage